Friday, 22 March 2013


Bajrapur is mentioned as Vajrapur in the Harivamsa Purana. The story of Vajrapur was revealed by the ruler of Jaiselmer in the 1790s to Lt. Col. James Tod, Political Agent of the East India Company, who was researching the Rajput tribes of India which included the Yadhu tribe, of which Sri Krishna and his son Pradyamna are the most well known. 

James Tod had befriended the ruler of Jaiselmer who as a result shared information from ancient Rajput and Yadhu manuscripts that he possessed. In the royal Rajput families of Jaiselmer, the story of Pradymna's city of Bajrapur in Siberia was well known. Here is a look:

The ruins of Por Bajin or Bajrapur
surrounded by Lake Tere Kol
1. The ruins of the City of Por Bajin located in Siberia bears an uncanny resemblance to the design of Dwarka City, which was the city that Sri Krishna had built earlier.
Sri Krishna's Dwarka
Submerged under the sea, off the coast of Gujarat, India 
2. James Todd traced the history of the Rajput tribe 'Yadhu' to Sri Krishna's times. He found that one of his sons, Pradyamna had conquered an 'Asura' city in Vajrapura in a foreign land far away in Siberia. 

3. The Harivamsa Purana describes the conquest of Vajrapuram in the Vishnu Paran section. It says that an a city was built by 'builder' Nikumba for King Vajranabha with the name Vajrapuram (later Bajra Pur). The city was an 'Asura' city in a far off land.

4. In his work 'The Goose in Indian Literature and Art' (Volume 2 of Memoirs of the Kern Institute), author Jean Philippe Vogel writes that the ancient Vajrapura was surrounded by a huge lake. Por Bajin, as it is called today, is surrounded by a lake called 'Tere Kol. 'Kul' (कूल) in Sanskrit means 'lake', 'pond' or 'pool'. Or else, 'Tere Kol' may be a distortion of 'Tri-Kut' (त्रिकूट) meaning 'Three Peaks or Ranges' which maybe a reference to the surrounding Altay, Sayan and Tochi Mountain Ranges.

4. As per various ancient Indian sources, Sri Krishna's son Pradyamna is known to have extended the Yadhu Empire north of what is present day India. He had attacked the city of Vajrapura and defeated King Vajranabha. Later a truce was called and Pradyamna married the king's daughter Prabhavati. The poetic versions of this war say that Pradyumna is transported by geese to a land far far away. 

Even the poetic versions of this story above, as in Vogel's 'The Goose in Indian Literature & Art', say that the powerful geese fly in military like formations leaving behind what Vogel describes as 'strips of white sandalwood paste emitted from the golden tips of the wings'. This could well be the description of aeroplanes leaving behind chem trails.

The entire Vajrapura mission of Pradumna is carried out with the help of flying 'geese' - but the description of power of their wings is what will appear to the present day reader as equivalent to the power of aeroplanes.

7. The 'Pingali Surana' (The Demon's Daughter), a Tamil version of the story, describes Pradyumna's quest for 'Vajrapura' as if it was entirely a quest for the beautiful Padmavati, the daughter of the King of Vajrapura. The truth is that the Yadus traveled in all directions and expanded the Yadu empire from Turkmenasthan to Samarkhand including Siberia -'the beautiful land'. Siberia translates as 'the beautiful land' from Sanskrit. In Sanskrit 'Su' (सु) means 'good' or 'beautiful' and 'Pura' (पुरा), 'Puri' (पुरी) or 'puram' (पुरम) all mean 'land' or 'city'. It may well have been the beauty of the land, rather than of a woman, that attracted the Yadus to Siberia.

Many rivers in Siberia still bear Sanskrit names - examples: Tara (तारा), Om (ओम्), 'Apa' (आप) and the 'Angara' (अङ्गार). For a note on the Sanskrit Connection to the names 'Angara' and lake 'Baikal' click here.

8. According to some ancient Indian history annals, in around 6220 B.C, there existed six Asura cities of which two were in VajraPura and Supura. (Por Bajin and Siberia). These were ruled by the Asuras (not Devas). The Asuras had attacked and defeated the Devas.

But the final battle (the Sixth Devasura Sangrama) between theDevas and the Asuras was fought in Mandranchal Mountains (Tibet) and further north. This battle was won by the Devas, who then took over Vajrapur and Supura. J.P.Mittal describes the details in his History of Ancient India (7300 BC to 4250 BC). To read this book click here.

Other Suggested Links:

1. The Secret Doctrine
2. Por-Bajin, An Enigmatic Site, Siberia

Friday, 15 March 2013


About a hundred years ago an archaeological site by the name 'Por-Bajin', also spelled 'Por Bayzn' was discovered in the Tere-Kol Lake, located across the Altai Mountain Range in Tuva, Southern Siberia. The secret of the fort at Tere Kol lake in Por Bajin has never been solved. But the answer to some questions may lie in the name 'Por Bajin' itself, and in the name of a city mentioned in the annals of ancient Indian history and literature.

Lt. Col James Tod, the Political Agent of the East India Company, who was stationed in India in the latter part of the eighteenth century, having befriended the Maharaja of Jaisalmer, gained access to the ancient annals of Rajasthan and western India that had been handed down to the Maharaja from his ancestors. James Tod researched the ancient literature and in 1790 summarized his findings in 'Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan'*, which is now regarded as one of the major works that the British produced during their reign in India.

What James Tod wrote reveals interesting information about ancient India. In his study Tod found that the 'Yadhu Tribe', of whom Sri Krishna was the most prominent member, and his three sons, spread the Yadhu empire  westward and also up north beyond the geographical boundaries of present day India. One of the cities that was conquered by the Yadhu tribe was Vajra-pur 
(वज्र-पुर्), later called Bajra-pur. The city was known to have been surrounded by a lake.

As per various ancient Indian sources, Sri Krishna's son Pradyamna is known to have extended the Yadhu Empire north of what is present day India. He had attacked the city of Vajrapura and defeated King Vajranabha. Later a truce was called and Pradyamna married the king's daughter Prabhavati. The poetic versions of this war say that Pradyumna is transported by geese to a land far far away. 

Is it possible that 'Por-Bajin' is a distortion of 'Pur-Bajra'  - or 'Bajra Pur' in reverse. As mentioned above, the more correct sound 'Vajra', is co
mmonly pronounced 'Bajra'. In Sanskrit, 'Vajra' (वज्र) means 'impenetrable', 'Pur' (पुर्) means a city. Archaeologists at 'Por Bajin' have described the structure as an almost 'impenetrable fortress'. In the local 'Tuvan' language 'Por Bajin' translates as 'Clay House' which does not describe the features of the foundation at all. In fact, the Sanskrit 'Vajra Pur' is a much more apt word for describing an 'impenetrable fortress'.

The Por-Bajin Structure at 'Tere Kol Lake', Siberia
Could this have been Lord Krishna's City Vajra-Pur
or Bajra-Pur mentioned in ancient Indian annals.

Now a look at the name of the lake - Tere-Kol. 'Kul' (कूल) is Sanskrit for 'lake', 'pond' or 'pool'. 'Teer' (तीर) is Sanskrit for 'shore' or 'bank' of a river, or the 'edge' of a pool or lake.

Until now, the archaeologists have dated Por-Bajin site to only 8th century AD, but have not been able to figure out much else about it. Is 'Por Bajin' the Yadhu city that was established by Sri Krishna's sons in Southern Siberia? Could it be that traces of the city of the Yadhus still exist somewhere deep among the ruins of 'Por-Bajin'?

A look at ancient Dwarka, the city from where Sri Krishna ruled and was built prior to Bajra-Pur, may reveal the answer. Dwarka located off the coast of Gujarat is now submerged. What is uncanny though is the close resemblance of the foundation structure of Dwarka to that of Por Bajin.

An artists conception of Sri Krishna's city
of 'Dwarka' based on descriptions in Hindu texts.
The city is now being explored by marine archaeologists off the coast of Gujarat in India.

Aerial views of Por Bajin are almost identical to that of the description of Dwarka in Indian scriptures. Though artifacts found at Por Bajin have been currently dated to no earlier than  medieval times, and though they reveal some links to China, but it is also evident that if there were links to the Yadhu tribe of India, then the medieval structures that exist today at the site were constructed above or on top of  what was built by the Yadhus in about 3000- 4000 BC. However, the foundations must even today be the same as that of the earliest structure.

The name Siberia, it is said, originates from the Tatar-Bashkirs word for 'sleeping land' (Sibir) or 'beautiful land' (Siber).
 'Siberia' translates as 'the beautiful land' from Sanskrit. In Sanskrit 'Su' (सु) means 'good' or 'beautiful' and 'Pura' (पुरा), 'Puri' (पुरी) or 'puram' (पुरम) all mean 'land' or 'city'. These is widely accepted in the Indian circles.

Others have contended that 'Sibir' (शिबिर) means 'camp'. Archaeologists have conjectured that, in antiquity, Por-Bajin was possibly used only as a summer residence, or a camp, given the extreme weather conditions of Siberia. Some have therefore contended  that the name of Siberia in ancient Indian texts is 'Shibir', in reference to the temporary 'camps' that were set up there by travelers, but this view is not accepted for lack of authenticity.

Some consider Por Bajin stronghold to be a temple and call it 'Russian Shaolin'. Others believe that this construction serves as the northern gates to sacred place Shambala.

Suggested Links
*Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan' (published- 1829 AD) by Lt. Col. James Todd of East India Company.
1. Lake Baikal and Angara River, Siberia - The Sanskrit Connection
2. Dwarka or Por Bajin
3. Yoni Worship in Siberia

4. Por Bajin - Fortress of Solitude
5. Pradyua

Wednesday, 13 March 2013


Lake Baikal, the world's oldest and deepest freshwater lake, located in Siberia, is 400 miles long and extends from its northern tip down to South-Eastern Siberia, just north of the Mongolian border. Its waters are said to be crystal clear. The lake is 25 million years old, making it the oldest known existing freshwater lake. From the southern end of Lake Baikal flows out the Angara River.The fault zone on which Lake Baikal exists is seismically active, there are many hot springs in the area, and earthquakes are frequent.

Lake Baikal and the River Angara

Lake Baikal. Its name is traced to the Turik languages and is said to mean 'rich lake'. However, the Sanskrit translation of its name is more appropriate. In Sanskrit 'Bha' (भा) means 'lustre', 'shine' or 'splendor'. 'Kula' (कूल) means 'lake', 'pond' or 'pool'. 'Baikal' then translates as 'Shining Lake' - a reference to its crystal clear waters.

There are other possibilities. Baikal is the largest fresh water lake in the world extending 400 miles from one tip to the other. In Sanskrit, 'bashkal' (बाष्कल) means 'great' or 'large' which is appropriate given the size of the lake. There is a Vedic connection too. Bashkal was the name of one of the Rig Vedic sages.*

From the southern tip of Lake Baikal flows the Angara River. This is an interesting name. In Sanskrit 'Angara' (आङ्गार) means 'heated' or 'warm' or 'hot coal'. This is curious since the waters of Lake Baikal are icy. However, the upper stretch of the Angara River is lined with thermal springs spewing hot water, steam and minerals. The temperature of the water at Angarakan-Sartinsky Spring located on the left shore of the Upper Angara is about 36-40 degrees Celsius; at Asindinsky spring - located in the Upper Angara river valley, Yanchuy river mouth - the temperature of the spring water goes up to 50 degrees Celsius, at Dzelindinsky springs in Upper Angara river valley, Dzelinda river mouth, 32-44 degrees Celsius, and at Delun-Uransky spring - Upper Angara river valley, Niro stream mouth, up to 35°C. 

There are many many more hot water mineral springs in this region. With so many thermal water springs spewing hot water and minerals into the Angara River Valley, the name Angara, meaning 'hot', is not surprising, - not surprising only if one were to assume that Sanskrit was once spoken in this region. (The details of the information about the Hot water Springs has been taken from here).

As an aside, here is an interesting piece from the research done by Lt. Col. James Tod. Lt. Col James Tod, the Political Agent of the East India Company, who was stationed in India in the latter part of the eighteenth century, befriended the Maharaja of Jaisalmer, and gained access to the ancient annals of Rajasthan and western India, that the Maharaja's family possessed. James Tod researched the ancient literature and summarized his findings in 'Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan', which is now regarded as one of major work that the British produced during their reign in India.

What James Tod wrote reveals interesting bit of information about ancient India and Siberia. In his study of the ancient tribes of India Tod found that the 'Yadhu Tribe', of whom Shri Krishna was the most prominent member, and his three sons, spread the Yadhu empire westward and also up North from India. One of the cities that was set up by them was known as Bajrapur, (probably Vajrapur), just across the Altai Mountain Range in Southern Siberia!

Suggested Links:
1. Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan by Lt. Col. James Todd
2. *For more on the Rig Vedic Sage Bashkal click on The Bharadvaja's in Ancient India by Thaneswar Sarmah.

Tuesday, 12 March 2013


There are many opinions about whether or not the ancient civilizations of Europe ever spoke a language close to Proto Indo European or Sanskrit, but there is no debating the fact that Sanskrit is a language, which has the in-built intelligence to decode the ancient names of present day rivers and mountains anywhere in the world.

Irrespective of one's opinion about whether Sanskrit was a universal language of an all pervading Vedic world, Sanskrit remains one of the biggest tools that can remove the many layers under which the truths of human history are hidden. Here is a look at the names of the Rivers of Bosnia and Herzegovina:

One of the most prominent rivers of Bosnia Herzegovina is the Tara River. It is only 82 miles long, but at its deepest it is 1300 metres. Its canyon, the Tara River Canyon, is the second deepest in the world - after the Grand Canyon. The words 'tAr', 'tAra 'and "tarA' have many meanings in Sanskrit. here are the most relevant one's:

-'tAr' (तार) means 'high', 'clear', 'excellent', protector, good, clean, 'descent to a river'.
-'tAra" (तारा) means 'star', 'asterism', 'meteor'.
-'tara' (तर) means surpassing, crossing, carrying across, and 'passage'.

The Tara River is also known as Tapa in Serbian Cyrillic. Tapa (तप) means 'warmth' or 'sun' in Sanskrit. 

The Tara emerges from the confluence of the Opasnica and Verusa Rivers. Opasnica may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'upasana' (उपासन) which means 'prayer', 'worship' or 'respect'. 'Verusa' may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Varish' (वारीश) which means 'Lord of the Waters' or 'Ocean', or Verusa may be derived from 'Varisha' (वरिषा) which means 'rain'.

The Tara converges with the Piva to form the Drina River. Piva (पीवा) in Sanskrit means 'water' . Together the two rivers form the third river Drina. The Drina for which no etymological explanation has been given so far, may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Trini'. 'Trini' (त्रीणि) means meaning 'Threesome' or 'Third'. The name 'Trini' is akin to 'Triveni', the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna at Prayag in India.

The Drina Confluence
The name Drina may be a distortion of the Sanskrit  'Trini
meaning 'threesome'.

The Drina is a branch of the Danube watershed. For a note on the Sanskrit connection to the name Danube click here.

Monday, 11 March 2013


The Avesta is the collection of Seven Primary Texts books of 'Zoroastrianism' the ancient religion of Iran, then called Persia. The etymological origins of the word 'Persia' are unclear though it is known that the most ancient form of the name 'Persia' is 'Parsa'. The name is probably of Sanskrit origins and of Indian coinage. In India 'Persia' was known as 'Paras' (परस्) which means 'further', 'away' or 'beyond'. In Indian mythology 'Paras' represents a precious touchstone that transformed any metal that it came in contact to gold. 'Para', in ancient Sanskrit also means 'transcendental' or 'magical powers'.

1. Book I of the Avesta is called 'Yasna'. 'Yasna' is derived from Sanskrit 'Yagya' (यज्ञ) which means the 'Holy Fire Worship'. The Yasna also includes the 'gathas'. The word 'Gatha' comes from Sanskrit 'gatha' (गाथा) which means 'hymns' or 'verses'.

2. Book II is the 'Visperad' and is a supplement to the 'Yasna'. It contains the rituals and the liturgical code of the Yagna . The Avestan word 'Visperad' has been decoded as 'Visspe Ratavo', meaning 'prayer to all patrons'.

The Yasna and the Visperad, like the Hindu Yajur-Veda, encode the 'vidhi' (विधि) or the method of the ritualistic ceremony and fire worship The 'Visperad' is never recited without the 'Yasna' which points to the fact that the 'Visperad' were the hymns that were chanted as the 'Yasna' (Avestan) or Yagna (Sanskrit), or 'Offerings to the Holy Fire' (English), were made.

'Visperad' may be decoded with the help of Sanskrit as follows: 'Perad' is a distortion of Sanskrit 'Parida' (परिदा) which means 'an offering of devotion'. The first syllable 'Vis' may have entered into Avestan from Sanskrit 'Vidh' (विध्) which means 'Honour a God with'. The Sanskrit 'Vidh-Parida' would then translate as 'Honour a God with offering of Devotion".

3. The IIIrd Book is the 'Vendidad' and is generally accepted to be a corruption of the Avestan 'Vi-Daevo-Data', which if decoded with the help of Sanskrit means 'Given Against the Demons'. In Sanskrit 'Videva' (विदेव) means 'those who are not Devas or Gods' that is equivalent to 'Demons'. 'DatA' means 'giver' in Sanskrit.

The name 'Vendidad' is therefore interpreted as a 'method to confound the demons'. But that has a negative connotation (which may originate from the fact that the Rig Vedic 'Sura' or Devas' were considered as 'Demons' in the kingdoms of Central Asia).  Besides, in Sanskrit, 'Vedeva' (विदेव) does mean 'hostile to Gods'. However, unlike the 'Yasna' the 'Vendidad text is not universally revered, and some have argued that the 'Venidad' was either written much later than the 'Yasna' or else distortions were introduced into the original 'Vendidad' texts. 

It is also said that though the language of Vendidad is Old Avestan, the religious concepts enumerated in there are not. The original meaning of the name 'Vendidad' may then have had much more to do more with Sanskrit 'Vandana' (वन्दना) which means 'the act of praising' or 'Vandita' (वन्दित) which means 'One who is praised or revered like God' to the rather dark 'Vi-deavo-data' meaning 'Given against the Demons'. 

4. The IVth  book is the 'Yasht', the name derives from Avestan 'yesti' which means 'to venerate', and is a book of 21 hymns. 'Yasht' may be derived from any of these Sanskrit words - 'Yachati' (यच्छति) which means 'offer' or  to 'give', Yacha (याच्) to 'ask for' or 'request', 'Yacha' (याच्य) 'making a humble request' and so on.

5. The Vth book is the 'Sriroza' which means 'Thirty Days' in Avestan. In the Hindu tradition, the concept of Thirty Gods exists as 'TridashGuru' (त्रिदशगुरु). The 'Sri' in 'Sriroza' is a distortion of Sanskrit (त्रिंश) 'trinsh' or 'Trinshat' (त्रिंशत्) both meaning 'thirty'.

6. The VIth Book is the 'Khordeh Avestan', which means 'Small Avestan'. 'Khordeh' is derived from Sanskrit 'Kriduh' (कृधु) meaning 'small'.

To read about the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Zarathustra' and 'Azerbaijan' click here.

Suggested Link:
Ancient Indian Colonies of the Far East - Dr. R. C Mazumdar

Saturday, 9 March 2013


In popular literature the roots of the name 'Azerbaijan' have only been traced to as far back as the Old Persian 'Azar' meaning 'fire' and 'baijan', originally 'payegan', meaning 'protector'.

'Azar Payegan' has been linked to the 'Holy Fire Worship' of Zoroastrianism. Avestan was the language of Zoroastrianism.

'Azar', meaning 'fire' in Old Persian, is derived from Avestan 'atar' which means 'fire'. Avestan is itself closely linked to Sanskrit. 
In Sanskrit, 'agira' (अगिर), 'ashira' (अशिर ), 'agni' ( अग्नि ), and 'ushij' ( उशिज् ) all mean fire. The Avestan 'atar' derives from Sanskrit 'agira', just as the Latin 'igneus' derives from Sanskrit 'agni'. 

The Avestan 'Payegan' which means 'Protector' derives from Sanskrit 'palaka' (पालक) which also means 'protector'. The suffix 'gana' (गण) in Sanskrit means 'a group' or 'troop'. 'Palak-gaan' in Sanskrit would therefore mean 'protectors' or 'guardians'. In Rigveda 'groups of gods' were referred to as 'devagana' ( देवगण).

The Sanskrit Inscriptions at 'Baku Ateshgah'
in Azerbaijan. The first line says, "Shri Ganeshaye Namah'.
The Persian script added later pertains to 'Fire' but is grammatically  incorrect.
Here is a look at the name 'Zororatra' or 'Zararhustra' after whom the ancient Iranian religion was named. The Avestan 'Zarathushtra' is often translated as 'Old Camel'. The Old Persian or Avestan 'zarant' meaning 'old' is itself derived from Sanskrit 'jara' (जर) also meaning 'old', and 'ushtra' (उष्ट्रmeaning 'camel'.  Distortions of Sanskrit 'jara' and 'ushtra' appear in Greek, Latin, Avestan and Persian with the sammeanings.

But Zorausthara has a far more significant translation in Sanskrit. The first syllable of 'Zarath-ustra' may well be a distortion of 'harit' meaning 'golden'. In Persian 'zarat' also  means 'golden' and is derived from Sanskrit 'harit' via Avestan. The Sanskrit 'ash' (अष्means 'to shine'. 'Zarathustra' then means 'one who shines like gold'. It   may well have been a name given to 'Zarathustra' by his followers in deference of his wisdom and is definitely ore appropriate than the more common 'Golden Camel' translation.

The Temple of Surakhani, Azerbaijan
Sanskrit Inscription

Suggested Link:

Tuesday, 5 March 2013


The name Denmark!

Most handbooks link the word 'den' which means 'flat land' to one of the three sources listed here

1. to German 'tenne' which means 'barn floor',
2. to English 'den' which means 'cave', and;
3. to Sanskrit 'dhánus' (धनुस्) meaning 'desert'.

However, it is the Sanskrit 'dan' (दान) which means 'meadow' or 'open pastures' which is the most appropriate.

Many place names in Denmark (Denmark included) have two syllables. The most common second syllables are:

1. 'Ager' which means 'field'. 'Ager' is said to be derived from the Latin 'ager', originally from Sanskrit 'ajrya' (अज्र्य) meaning 'fields'.
2. 'Berg' which means 'hill', traced via Old German 'berg' to Sanskrit 'brhant' (बृहन्त) meaning 'high' or 'elevated'.
3. 'Borg' meaning fort, derived from Sanskrit 'Durg' (दुर्ग).
4. 'Bro' meaning 'bridge' from Sanskrit 'Brhi' (भृ) which means 'to carry', 'support' or 'lift up'.
5. 'Dal or 'Dahl' meaning 'valley', as in Sanskrit 'dal' (दल्) meaning 'crack' or 'split'.

The second 'syllable' of the word 'Denmark', or the Norse 'Danmaork' is said to mean 'woodland'. 'mark' or 'maork' may be traced to the Sanskrit 'marya' (मर्या) which means 'limit', 'border' or 'boundary'. 'Marya' (
मर्या) certainly fits in much better, considering that it also is the source of Old Frisian 'merkia', and, German and Dutch 'merken', which all mean 'mark', which is often used in the sense of 'marked territory', hence equivalent to 'border' and therefore the Sanskrit 'marya'.

It is also possible that both 'mark' and 'maork', and their accepted meaning of 'woodland', may be distorted forms of Sanskrit 'marg' (मार्ग), which usually is taken to mean 'path', 'passage' or 'route', but also means 'track of a wild animal', and  'hunting'. It is in this sense that the Danish meaning of 'mark', which is 'woodland', may be linked to the Sanskrit 'marg'.