Friday, 27 September 2013


The Mahabharata, states, "The able Panch (पञ्च) setting out to invade the Earth, brought the whole world under their sway". - Book 1, ch.94, shloka 3738

The able 'Panch' have been interpreted by some western philologist, foremost among them British researcher Laurence Waddell (1854-1938), as the ancestors of the people who later came to be known as 'Britons', Anyone who has read the Mahabharata knows that the 'Panch' are the 'five' Pandava' brothers.

The word 'Panch' appears in the names of many Mahabharata tribes - one such tribe was the 'Panchal' (पञ्चाल) - the tribe to which Draupadi belonged. The first five tribes of the Vedic-Kshatriyas were known as Pancha-janya (पाञ्चजन्य) or 'Five People'. In Vedic literature the 'Pancha-janya' are described as the 'five major races' of the Mahabharata. The Maha-Bharata is the chronicle of the Bharata dynasty. Bharat was a legendary emperor of India, the son of Dushyanta and Shakuntala, and his empire is known to have extended way beyond even what is referred to as greater India. 

Laurence Waddell traces the origins of the Britons to the descendants of King Bharata, via the Phoenicians. Waddell quotes the following verse from the Mahabharata - "And King Bharat gave his name to the Dynastic Race of which he was the founder; and so it is from him that the fame of that Dynastic People hath spread so wide."

From the research work of Laurence Waddell -
The inscribed stones of Partolon - King of the Scots, dated to 400 BC. In the inscription, Parto-lon who derives his name from 'Bharat' calls himself 'Briton'. The Phoenicians, who were the descendants of King Bharat of Ramayana gradually migrated to Britain. The patronym changed from Bharat, to Barat and finally to Briton.

Waddell says that the descendants of King Bharata included the branch that later came to be known as Phoenicians. The 'later Phoenicians' also gave themselves the title 'Barat' which they spelled as 'Parat', 'Prat' or 'Prydi'. However, to align his theory to the now defunct Aryan Invasion Theory, Waddell called the early Phoenicians as 'Vedic Aryans'. 

To set the record straight once again, no Indian text mentions a tribe or a race by the name 'Arya'. The word 'arya' (आर्य) appears many times in ancient Hindu texts- for example Goddess Sita addresses Sri Rama as 'arya' which simply means 'the noble one' or even 'aryaputra' which means 'the descendant of the noble one'. In fact everyone would address 'the respected ones' as 'arya'. It is ridiculous to interpret the word 'arya' as a race - imagine interpreting the title 'Sir' or 'Sire' as the name of a race. 

In his Bengali essay, 'The Rig Veda - A History Showing how the Phoenicians had their earliest home in India', Rajeshwar Gupta wrote in 1902 that the origins of the earliest Phoenicians can be traced to India and Afghanistan from where they were driven away westward. They moved from India to Egypt, Greece, and Rome, and finally to Britain. Though of a vastly superior culture, the Phoenicians over centuries mixed with the natives and gradually lost their supremacy as they moved westward.

Monday, 23 September 2013


From whatever angle Sugreeva, the chief of the monkey commandos of Ramayana, sees the earth, he describes it to be shaped similar to a cow's hoof print. 

In the Valmiki Ramayana Sugreeva describes the shape of the earth
as seen from above the earth like 'a circular ball shaped similar
to a cow's hoof print'. The gap in the cow's hoof
print certainly indicates Sugreeva having seen
the oceans that divide the continents.

Sugreeva tells Sri Rama that he got to know about the 
geography of the earth when he was trying to 
save his life being chased in a flight-sortie by Bali.

In Section 46, Verse 13 of Kishkinda Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, Sugreeva, tells Sri Rama, "I have then really seen the earth as in the reflection on the surface of a mirror, where the mirror shows all the objects in exactness, and the earth is like the circle of a fireball, where it is encircled with fire-like reddish, brownish, ochreish minerals and ores, and it appeared to me in my high flight like a cow-hoof-print in the mirror, called my perception". [4-46-13]

In today's world we are conditioned to look at the world 'north side up' but there really is no up or down.

The other view of the world. India at the centre of a land mass.
The Puranas say that 'Jambhudvipa' (Bharata) is at the centre of the world.

The other view of the world.

In Valmiki Ramayana when Sugreeva describes the route to the 'vanaras' headed east in search of the abducted Sita, he tells them that after reaching Shalmali Dvipa (identified as Australia), and further after crossing 5 oceans, they will reach a land where they will see 'Ananta',the celestial serpent, balancing the world on its head.

South America is the Celestial Snake 'Ananta' described
in the Ramayana and the Puranas. With a '1000 heads and
a narrow tail' it supports the world on its head from 'Patala'
(the world under). Lord Vishnu is known to have dwelt
in this part of the world.

Sugreeva then directs the Vanaras to head  northwards (towards Peru). He tells them that from the sea is visible a 'three branched golden palm tree' engraved on a mountain. That, Sugreeva tells them, is the pointer that they have reached the 'Udaya' (Andes) mountains.

The ancient shining Paracas (Prakash) Trident of Peru
The Puranas describe the 'Trident' engraved on a
mountain as the 'Vajra' of Indra. The Ramayana describes
it as the 'three branched golden palm tree' engraved
on the 'Udaya' (Andes) mountains.

On route from Chile to Peru, in the Andean plateau which is the the second highest plateau on earth lies Mt. Parinacota. The 'vanaras' must then have seen Mt. Parina-cota from the coast of Chile - its summit is at a height of 20,000 feet! 'Kuta' (कुटis Sanskrit for 'mountain'. 

Mt. Parincota (Parinkuta) on the Chungara Lake in Chile,
South America. 'Kuta' is Sanskrit for 'mountain'. 'Parina' has
many meanings in Sanskrit including 'abundance'.
'Pakshin' means 'bird'. The Ramayana mentions
a lake described as 'Sudarshana' (beautiful) in the region.

In the ancient Ayamara language 'Parin' means 'flamingo' and 'cote' means a 'lake'. In Sanskrit 'parnin' (पर्णिन्) means 'winged' or 'with plumes'; 'kuta' (कुट) means 'mountain'. Hence, the Sanskrit 'kuta' is more appropriate and explains the word 'cote' better than Ayamara where it means 'lake'. 

In the Parincota region, there lies a scenic lake by the name 'Chungara', earlier called 'Chunkara'. It is the 29th highest lake in the world.

Could the name 'Chunkara' be derived from the Sanskrit 'Sudarshana' - the lake that Valmiki describes in the Ramayana. In literal Sanskrit 'Sudarshan*' means 'good to look at' or 'beautiful'. However in the Aymara language 'Chunkara' means 'pointed mountain'!!

(* Another lake that the Ramayana designates as 'Sudarshan' is one that it says is locatedin  Shalmali Dvipa. As per ancient Indian texts Shalmali Dvipa includes Australia and New Zealand.) 

Other places in Chile which may have names of Sanskrit origins in forgotten antiquity include the River Salila. 'Salila' (सलिल) means 'water'. The tribe that populated the tip of South America called themselves the 'yamana'. 'Yaman' (यमन) is the name of a Hindu God and 'Yamuna' (यमुना) is the name of a major river in India.

In the Ramayana, Sage Valmiki writes that what is inland beyond the Udaya (Andes) is not known, except that that part of land was frequented and inhabited by the celestials'. The 'vanaras' headed east from India reach Chile and Peru. They return from the Andes, never crossing the Andes mountain range.

A 'vanara' party in search of Goddess Sita heads in the eastern direction from 'Jambhu Dvipa' (Bharata) and reaches the Southern tip of South America via 'Shalmali Dvipa' (Australia). The 'vanara' search party that heads west,  travels across the Sindhu river and reaches Central Asia. Kusha Dvipa (Africa) is not mentioned in the Ramayana.

There is an ancient  mine by the name 'Ramayana' in Chile. How it got its name is not known. And, here's one more for the 'other view of the world':

Earth rises over the moon.

Saturday, 21 September 2013


Sir William Jones (1744 - 1794) states in his papers published by the the Asiatic Society that the Incan festival 'Rama-Sitva' celebrated on the Winter Solstice Day gets its name from the Hindu God King, Sri Rama and his wife, Goddess Sita. The Winter Solstice Day is celebrated in June in Peru. (Peru lies in the southern Hemisphere and the winter solstice day falls in June).

The festival that William Jones referred to as 'Rama Sitva' is also known as 'Inti-Raymi'. It is said that the name 'Inti Raymi' comes from the ancient South American Quechua language and means 'resurrection of the sun'. According to Incan mythology, Inti was the Sun god, son of Vira-cocha
(वीर- कोच), creator of civilization. In the Hindu tradition Virochana (विरोचन) is the name for 'Sun' and also 'Sun God'. As an adjective 'virochana' in Sanskrit means 'illuminating', 'brightening' or 'shining'. 

But are there any historical (often dismissed as mythological) pointers that connect Guatemala and Peru to India. There are of course many ancient Peruvian sites that are known to derive their names from Sanskrit (discussed elsewhere on this blog site). Also many historical and archaeological facts have emerged since the time of Sir William Jones that establish the connection between the Incan civilizations of South America and India. 

One of the most remarkable finds has been the deciphering of what is the archaeological sculpture 'Panel 3 of Piedras Negras' in Guatemala.

Panel No. 3 of Piedras Negras, Guatemala,depicts the coronation of  the 'Hero Twins' of 'Popul Voh'. Their story has a remarkable likeness to the story of 
 'Luv and Kush', the twins of 'Ramayana'. In the panel, the two young boys 
on the right could be 'Luv' and 'Kush'. In the centre is Sri Rama. 
On the left are Lakshman, Bharat and Shatrugna.

Scholars generally accept that this glyph is a representation of Yax Balam (or Xbalanqué, one of  the Hero Twins) from the Popol Vuh. Popol Vuh (Book of Community) is a corpus of historical narratives of the ancient Incan kingdoms of Guatemala and its surrounding areas, and as is customary, this narrative too is dismissed as myth by mainline historians. 

Popul Voh features among other stories, description of the 'creation of the world', a description of the 'great flood',  the epic tales of the Hero Twins named Hunahpu and Xbalanque, and the genealogies of the God Kings of ancient lands that include present day Guatemala, Peru, Mexico, Honduras, Bolivia and Belize. To those who have read the Indian Epic Valmiki Ramayana, the above mentioned list of descriptions and stories are the same as that contained in Book-I (Bala Kanda) of the Ramayana. 

In the context of the Popul Voh, the text in Panel No. 3 of Piedras Negras has been interpreted as the depiction of the throne accession or coronation ceremony of the Hero Twins, the description of the palace and those attending the ceremony. For more on the interpretation of the text inscribed on the many sculpture panels of Piedras Negras click here.

The Ramayana however sheds more light. If we were to interpret 'Piedras Negras Panel No. 3' as the depiction of the coronation of the Hero Twins, the twins of Popul Voh might just be the equivalent of Luva & Kush of the Ramayana. On the panel (see picture above) they can be identified as the two young boys standing on the right hand side. Just behind them are seen two lady attendants. In the centre, seated on the throne is Sri Rama, and on the left hand side are three men, identified as Lakshman with folded arms, with Bharat in the centre and Shatrugana on the outer-left.

This interpretation gets credence from the fact that there are other indicators that point to the fact that in ancient times, there was contact between India and the ancient civilizations of South America.   

Ancient Indian texts have mapped the world from different perspectives. For example, the Bramha Purana describes the world geography from the perspective of the four directions. It says that the world is divided into seven islands (continents) divided by seven seas. One of the islands is Jambudvipa (India) which is at the center. To the east of Jambudvipa is Ketumala, to the north is Uttarakuru, to the west lies  Bhadravarsha and to the south lies Ramyakavarsha.

Many scholars have identified 'Ketumala' with Guatemala. Though the sceptics do not accept this argument, but it is a fact that a place by the name 'Ketumala', spelled 'Chetumala' does exist in Mexico today. The Vishnu Purana mentions that Ketumala is situated to the far west of Jambudvipa.

The Bramha Purana also describes the world in terms of 'above the surface' and the 'world under' called 'Patala' that is present day South America.

In the Ramayana, Goddess Sita is said to be 'Dharti Putri' born of 'Mother Earth', and, as the story of Ramayana closes, Sita returns to  the fold of 'Mother Earth'. It may just have been that Sita belonged to 'Patala' which was interpreted as 'world under', but really pointed towards the mighty kingdoms of the ancient South America. 

In fact in the Ramayana, there is a host of indicators that point towards a connection with Peru and its neighbouring countries. The most remarkable of this is Sugriva's description of the route map to the 'vanara commando brigade' going east from India. They go far enough in the eastern direction, crossing oceans and reaching all the way to the 'Udaya' (identified as the Andes) mountains via 'Shalmali Dvipa' (Australia). For more on the 'vanara route' from 'New Zeland to Peru' click here. For more on the 'vanara route' from India to Australia click here. The account of this route as described in the Valmiki Ramayana is fascinating. Fascinating! 

Then there is the ancient 'Howler Monkey God' sculpture of Copan in Honduras. This sculpture has been equated with the Hindu God Hanuman.

Ancient 'Monkey God' Sculpture
Copan, Hondurus.
Because of his stance and the mace
in his hand, he has been equated with
Sri Hanuman of Ramayana

Sri Hanuman
Notice that the stance and the mace
are the same in the Copan Monkey God Sculpture

 as Sri Hanuman.
Coming back to the Incan God Vira-cocha and the Vedic Sun God Virochana, there is an interesting story in the Bhagwat Purana that indicates that the story of Vira-cocha and Virochana might be two different versions of the life-story of the same entity, albeit with some discrepancies. 

Many scholars regard the Incan God Vira-Cocha the equivalent of the Vedic Lord Indra. The myths and stories about the two are close. Vira-cocha is the 'King of Gods' just as Lord Indra is. Vira-cocha also wields the 'Thunderbolt', like Indra does. 

In the Bhagwat Purana there is a very interesting link between Lord Indra and an 'asura' by the name Virochana, the son of Prahalad and the father of Bali. In short, the story goes that both Indra and Virochana vie with each other to impress Brahma with their knowledge about 'Atman' or 'Supreme Consciousness'. Bramha promises to grant control of the universe to the one who proves his knowledge about 'Atman'. Could Virochana the son of Prahalad mentioned in the Bhagwat Purana be the 'Vira-cocha' of the Peruvians. Could the lightening rod of the Peruvian 'Vira-cocha' be the 'Vajra' of Indra. Who finally wins control in the story depends on which version one reads. In Indian texts it is Indra who establishes control which is passed on to him by Brahma. 

The son of Virochana who is named 'Bali' is killed by his own brother 'Sugriva'. Sugriva and Bali are 'monkey gods'. What is interesting is that in the Ramayana it is Sugriva who is shown as being well versed with the global map and it is he who directs the 'vanaras' (monkey commandos) in all directions, including the brigade that travels right upto the 'Udaya' (Andes) mountains in search of Sita. The Hondurus Monkey-God sculpture of Copan is therefore no surprise. 

Earlier blogs on this site have discussed the details about the Paracas Trident of Peru and its connection to the Ramayana. Click here and here for more on this subject.

Suggested Links:
1. The Puranas
2. A brief History of Piedras Negras
3. Flying Machines from Valmiki Ramayana

Monday, 16 September 2013


Puma Punku also called 'Puma Pumku' or 'Puma Punchu', is part of a large temple complex at Tiwanaku (Tiahuanacu) in Bolivia. Its dimensions are gigantic, and it seems to have been brought to ruins by a massive cataclysm. Conventional dating puts its construction at 2000 years ago but emerging frontiers of science reveal that it is no less than 15000 years old. Its most ancient name is obviously unknown but in the vestiges of that ancient name what has stuck on as its name is 'Puma Punku'. In the Native American Aymara language , 'Puma Punku' means, 'The Door of the Puma (Lion)'.

Here is a look at the name 'Puma Punku' through the Sanskrit lens. If we were to look at the names of other ancient observatories that measure solstices in Peru and Boliva such as 'Sacsay-huaman' and 'Inti-huatana' we find that the words 'huaman' and 'huatana' are probably distortions of the same word. What might that word be?

In Sanskrit 'ayana' (अयन) is the word for 'solstice'. 'Ayana' also means 'half year' or 'precession (of the equinox)'. 'Hayana' (हायन) means 'that which repeats every year' in the context of astronomy. It is quite possible that the Sanskrit 'hayana' that distorts to 'huaman' in 'Sacsay-huaman' and to 'huatana' in 'Inti-huatana', shows up as 'puman' instead of 'huaman' or 'hayana' in the name 'Puman Punchu'. For more on the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Sacsay-huaman' click here and for the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Inti-huatana' click here. The Sanskrit word 'hayana' occurs as 'huayana' in yet another name of an ancient observatory of Peru - 'Huayana Picchu' (located close to the more famous 'Macchu Picchu). Click here to read about Huayana Picchu and its links to Sanskrit.

What about the Sanskrit connection to 'Punku' or 'Panchu' then. A close cognate of 'Panchu' is 'Pancha' (पञ्च). 'Pancha' has many meanings in Sanskrit - the most common is 'five', but 'pancha' also means 'measure'. In fact the Vedic calender is known as 'panchanga' (पञ्चाङ्ग) . The 'panchanga' measures the movement of the sun and moon and the rest of the planets. The literal translation of 'pancha is 'five' and 'anga' (अङ्ग) is part. In a calender, 'pancha' refers to the five measures of time - the lunar day of a waxing or waning moon fortnight (tithi), day of the week (vara), lunar mansion (nakshatra), luni-solar day (yoga) and half -lunar day (karana).

In the ancient Vedic calenders of India, which are used commonly in India even today, the name 'Pancha' occurs repeatedly. A lunar fortnight (15 days of waxing moon, or 15 days of waning moon) is known as Paksha, but is also referred to as 'Panchadasa' (पञ्चदश) ['Pancha' = 5, 'dasa' = 10] meaning 'Fifteen'.

Puma Punku
Solistice Observation Point


If Puma Punku is an observatory which measures the 'solstices', then its name may well be a distortion of words related to the Sanskrit 'hayana' and 'panchanga'. In fact the temple of Kalasasaya in Puma Punku is also a stone-calender that is aligned with the solstices. It is not surprising that here too there is a Sanskrit connection - 'Kala' (काल) means 'time'.For more on this click here.

So where might the link to the Ayamara 'Door of the Lion' translation of 'Puma Punku' have evolved from. In Sanskrit Lord Shiva is known as 'Pancha-anana' (पञ्चानन) or 'Five-Faced'- where four of the five faces represent, the four directions, and, one face points towards the sky. However what is interesting is that 'Pancha-anana' also means 'Lion' in Sanskrit, which connects it to the Ayanmara meaning of 'Puma Punku'. The 'lion' is known by many other names in Sanskrit were the word 'pancha' repeatedly occurs - namely Pancha-Mukha (पञ्चमुख), Pancha-nakha (पञ्चनख), Panchasya (पञ्चास्य), Panchavaktra (पञ्चवक्त्र), and Panchashikha (पञ्चशिख). Other cognates such as Palamkasha (पलंकष) also meaning 'lion'.

The Face on the Gateway of the Sun
at Puma Punku. The face has been interpreted 

both as the Sun and Lion
The other structures in the complex are named 'Kala-sasaya', 'Akapana', 'Keri-kala' etc. discussed elsewhere on this blogsite.

Suggested Links:

  1. Macchu Picchu - The Sanskrit Connection
  2. The Sun Temple of KoriKancha - The Sanskrit Connection
  3. Chankillo and Huayana Piccha, Peru - The Sanskrit Connection
  4. Ollantaytambo, Peru - The Sanskrit Connection
  5. The Paracas Trident, Peru - The Sanskrit Connection
  6. The Temple of Araqhama, Peru -The Sanskrit Connection
  7. Ayamara Language
  8. The Unsolved Mysteries of Puma Punku

Sunday, 15 September 2013


Horace Walpole (1717-1797) first used the word 'serendipity' in the English language in a letter dated 28th January 1754 to Horace Mann. Walpole said that he had formed the word from a Persian Fairy Tale called 'The Three Princes of Serendip'. The hero of the book was constantly making discoveries 'by accident and sagacity and chancing upon things they were not in quest of' and Warpole's word 'serendipity' entered the dictionary with this meaning.

The Three Princes of Serendip, is a tale concerning the deductive powers of the sons of the philosopher-king of Serendip. The tale 'Three Princes of Serendip' was published in Venice in 1557 by an enterprising printer called Michele Tramezzino. Richard Boyle who reviewed a sociological paper by the name 'The Travels and Adventures of Seredipity' written by Robert K. Merton and Elinor Barber says, "When Horace Walpole committed the word serendipity to paper Tramezzino was himself the compiler of the various tales, which were probably of ancient origin, mostly Indian", hence indicating the Persian tale 'The Three Princes of Svarnadvipa' also had an Indian origin. And sure enough 'The three Prices of Svarnadvipa' has a the Panchatantra kind of twist to the story. 
To read a gist of the story click and scroll down on the page here.

Etymological dictionaries accept that the name 'Serendip' stems from the Sanskrit 'Svarnadvipa' (सुवर्णद्वीप), meaning the 'Golden Island', an old name for Sri Lanka. The Arabs 'Svarnadvipa' pronounced it as Sarandib. (Some trace the etymology of serendipity to Sanskrit 'Simhadvipa' which literally translates to 'Island of Lions').

Sri Lanka came to be known as 'Suvarnadvipa' (Golden Island)
from which the word 'Serendipity'  is derived. In ancient Hindu scriptures
Sri Lanka was known as 'Suvarna Lanka' (Golden Lanka). 
Serendipity! The meaning of the word has however since changed to 'a pleasant accident' from its original meaning. “It's a bizarre but wonderful feeling, to arrive dead center of a target you didn't even know you were aiming for.” ― Lois McMaster Bujold.

Suggested links:

Tuesday, 10 September 2013


This post in no manner claims that the birth of Sri Rama occurred on the date that has been calculated by the Planetarium Software of NASA. But this post does uphold the view that Sri Rama could not have been born on any date later than the one calculated by Planetarium Software. Here's why.

According to Valmiki Ramayana, Sri Rama was born on the 9th day or the ninth tithi, also known as Navami, of the waxing moon fortnight, otherwise known as 'Shukla Paksh', in the month of Chaitra, sometime in antiquity.

The other pointers to the planetary positions at the time of Sri Rama's birth in Valmiki Ramayana are that Sri Ram's birth ascendant was Cancer, the day was advancing which indicates that the birth happened between 12 noon and 1 pm, that five of the seven planets were exalted.It also says that Moon was placed with Jupiter. In saying that the presiding deity is Aditi, Rishi Valmiki indicates that Sri Rama was born in the Punarvasu Nakshatra.

This also indicates that Moon had to be located between 0 degrees to 3.20 degrees of Cancer, since it is only between 0-3'20 degrees of Cancer, when Moon is associated with Cancer in the Punarvasu Nakshatra.

In one shot Rishi Valmiki describes all the planetary positions we need to calculate Sri Rama's birth chart. Here is the verse from Valmiki Ramayana:

ततो यज्ञे समाप्ते तु ऋतूनाम् षट् समत्ययुः |
ततः च द्वादशे मासे चैत्रे नावमिके तिथौ || १-१८-८
नक्क्षत्रे अदिति दैवत्ये स्व उच्छ संस्थेषु पंचसु |
ग्रहेषु कर्कटे लग्ने वाक्पता इंदुना सह || १-१८-९
प्रोद्यमाने जगन्नाथम् सर्व लोक नमस्कृतम् |
कौसल्या अजनयत् रामम् सर्व लक्षण संयुतम् || १-१८-१०

By deduction we also know that Sun was in Aries, Mars in Capricorn, Jupiter in Cancer, Venus in Pisces and Saturn in Libra. Sun and Venus are always within 47 degrees of each other and that condition is fulfilled if Sun is in Aries and Venus is in Pisces. If Sun and Venus are exalted, Mercury cannot be exalted because Mercury is always within 28 degrees of the Sun. Is Sun is in Aries, Mercury cannot be in its exaltation sign Virgo. Aries and Virgo are too far apart. 

Since Moon and Jupiter are together in Cancer in the first house or ascendant, it caused one of the best forms of Gaj Kesari Yoga. Jupiter is exalted, and Moon is in its own sign in Cancer. What could be better than that! And five exalted planets made him an divine, an emperor who's fame has refused to fade away. 
But we are looking at Lord Rama's planetary positions here from a point of view of astronomy, and not astrology! Though both are intricately tied up with one another!! 

This planetary data was fed into the Planetarium Software, a software which is now declassified, (it was earlier not available to public) and was used by NASA to calculate the exact position of planets for any given date - past, present or future, within a limit (unknown). The closest date from today into the past, for which the planetary data of Lord Rama's birth fits in, is 10th January, 5114 BC. Since then this combination has never occurred in the skies which implies Sri Ram was born no later than 5114 BC.

On January 10th 5114 BC, Sun is exalted in Aries, exalted Jupiter and Moon
are in Gaj Kesari Yoga in Cancer,  Saturn is exalted in Libra,
Mars is exalted in Capricorn, Venus is exalted in Pisces,
but Mercury is debilitated in Pisces.
Calculations as per the Planetarium Software
Courtesy: Hindu Traditions weblog
So why does Sri Ram's birth in 5114 BC fall in the month of January and not in March-April as it does in today. In other words why does lunar month Chaitra coincide with March-April and not with January as it did in 5114 BC. This is due to the shift in the precession of the equinox.

A note on the Shift of the Precession of the Equinox: The positions of the Equinoxes move westward along the ecliptic compared to the fixed stars on the celestial sphere. This annual motion is about 1 degree every 71.6 years. A complete Precession cycle covers a period of 25,765 (71.6 * 360) years, during which time the equinox regresses over 360°. This journey over 25,765 years covers the 12 zodiacs of the sky so that the sun rises on the vernal equinox in the same zodiac for about 2,150 years.

Today, the Sun rises in the background of Pisces on the vernal equinox. We are almost at the end of this cycle, the Sun will rise in the background of Aquarius from 2150 AD onward. 2150 years back (calculated from 2150 AD) that is from 1 AD to 2150 BC, the Sun rose with Aries in the background of vernal equinox, another 2150 years before that , that is, 4300-2151 BC,in Taurus and from 6450 - 4300 BC in Gemini! This almost 4 sign shift in the precession of the equinox accounts for the roughly 4- month shift from January to April in Sri Ram's birth day month of Chaitra.

But one cannot jump to any conclusions with the results of this calculation. To prove exactly when Sri Rama walked the earth in a human avatar all other details mentioned by Valmiki must be analysed.

One such detail is the mention of the four-tusked elephant that Sri Hanuman sees at Ravana's palace at Lanka.  The four-tusked elephant lived from 12 million to 1.6  million ago when it became extinct. 

Research and studies are going on around the world on
the extinct four-tusked elephant

Given this time frame, measuring the antiquity of the Ramayana in terms of the 'yugas' that the Rishis have mentioned is far more scientific than the few thousand years we are allowed to think by mainline historians.And to pass off facts, only because they are beyond our comprehension, as myths is the biggest disservice that we do to our own history. 

* Translation of the verses:

tataH yaj~ne samaapte = then, ritual, on completion;

R^ituuNaam SaT sam atyayuH = seasons, six, well, passed by;

tataH = then; dvaadashe maase = in twelfth, month;

chaitre naavamike tithau = chaitra month , ninth, day;

nakshatre aditi daivatye = star of the day [Punarvasu,] whose presiding deity is aditi;

panchasu graheSu swa uccha samstheshu = of five, planets, in their own, highest, positions - in their own ucCha sthAna-s in their own exalted positions - meSha, makara, karkaTa, mIna, tula - rAshI-s;

chandra yukta guru karkaTa lagne proudyamane;

karkaTe lagne = in Cancer [of Zodiac];

vaak patiH= when Speech's, Lord [Jupiter];

indunaa saha = Moon, along with;

pra udyamane = advancing daytime

Monday, 9 September 2013


Dr Fritjof Capra, an eminent American Physicist, who wrote the book 'The Tao of Physics' in 1975, connects the rhythmic pulsation of the subatomic particle with the Cosmic dance of Lord Shiva.  He says, “Every subatomic particle not only performs an energy dance, but also is an energy dance, a pulsating process of creation and destruction, without end. For the modern physicists, then Shiva's dance is the dance of subatomic matter...... Modern physics pictures matter, not as passive and inert, but as continuously dancing and vibrating. This is very much like the Eastern mystics description of the world. Both emphasize that the universe has to be grasped dynamically. It structures are not static, rigid ones, but should be seen in terms of dynamic equilibrium.

The Cosmic Dance of Shiva
Statue presented by Indian Government in June 2004 to
CERN (European Centre for Research in Particle Physics), Geneva, Switzerland
CERN is the seat of the Hadron Collider

Lord Shiva performs the Tandava Nritya (ताण्डव नृत्य) which is a divine dance. Rudra Tandava is described as a vigorous dance that is the source of the cycle of creation, preservation and dissolution. The Rudra Tandava marks the destruction of one cycle of creation followed by the beginning of a new cycle. 

नृत्तावसाने नटराजराजो ननाद ढक्कां नवपञ्चवारम्।
उद्धर्त्तुकामो सनकादिसिद्धादिनेतद्विमर्शे शिवसूत्रजालम्॥

At the end of His Cosmic Dance,
Shiva, the Lord of Dance,
with a view to bless the sages Sanaka and so on,
played on His Damaru fourteen times,
from which emerged the following fourteen Sutras,
known as Shiva Sutras or Maheshwara Sutras.

The new beginning is marked by Shiva playing his 'damru' from which the first sounds appear in the newly born universe. The sound is popularly known as Maheshwara Sutra. Amazingly the fourteen verses of Maheshwara Sutra that emanate from Shiva's Damru at the beginning of the new cycle of Creation are also the phonemes of the Sanskrit languageA phoneme is a basic unit of a language's phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units such as words.

Thus, as per the Rig Veda, the Maheshwara Sutra is the first organized sound on earth. To listen to it click here.
Hence, it is believed that the sound of Sanskrit words and the science of Sanskrit grammar (much like mathematics) has existed eternally. The ancient Vedic grammarians Panini, Katyayana and many more conceived and visualized Sanskrit grammar and merely re-established the revealed knowledge in their treatises.

The mouth of the Hadron Collider, Geneva
An Interpretation
Courtesy: ''

Saturday, 7 September 2013


 It is very rare for Western writers to trace the origin of an English word directly to Sanskrit, except if it is a word that is linked to New Age beliefs or Yoga. Examples of such words include Chakra, mandala, nirvana, pundit etc.

The Dictionary of Gems and Gemology. (Springer, 2005 (2nd), says on page 879, "Emerald in Sanskrit is called smarakata or marakata. .... The Greek name 'smaragdos' is a corruption of the Sanskrit smarakata. From Greek word smaragdos with the time, language and country derived the term esmerauld, esmaragd and emerald. The alteration from Sanskrit-Iranian (s)marakata-zumurrud to smaragdos-emerald suggests a common origin, because the name and gem have been imported together from Izumrud in Scythian or Bactria." Manutchehr-Danai, M. (Dr. Mohsen).

In the Manx Missecellenis containing The Emerald Vernicle of the Vatican (extracted from The Archaeological Journal, Volume 27, 1870) we find that the author C.W King writes, "Smaragdus, which is itself a corruption of the Sanscrit 'Smarakata', the gem of this name having been imported from Bachtria into Europe by the Traders of that race."

More on the subject of Gems:
1. Topaz - The Sanskrit Connection
2. Diamond - The Sanskrit Connection

Other Suggested Links:

Wednesday, 4 September 2013


The country Georgia. It is located in the South Caucasus range on the Black Sea Coast. It is a country that was a part of the erstwhile Soviet Union. Here is a look at the Sanskrit connection to the ancient place names of Georgia.

First the capital. Tablisi. Tablisi is home to many hot springs and draws its name from the old Georgian, 'tpili' which means 'warm'. The story goes that in the 5th century, Georgia's King Vakhtang GorgasaliIt chanced upon the hot water springs which were at that time covered under a dense forest. He was so impressed by the hot springs that he had the forest cleared and a town built around the hot springs. He named the town 'Tpili' or 'Tbilisi'. The name is interesting. Firstly, Georgian 'tpili' is obviously derived from the Sanskrit 'tapa'. There are many rivers in India such as the 'Tapati' and the 'Tapi' that get their name from the root word 'tapa' (तप) which means 'warm'.

In the Georgian annals King Vakhtang's name is said to be derived from Iranian 'vahrka-tanu' meaning 'wolf-bodied', a possible reflection of the wolf cult in ancient Georgia. But it is interesting that the Iranian 'vahrka-tanu' is the same as the Sanskrit 'vrika-tanu' (वृक - तनु) which has the exact same meaning - wolf-bodied. But at this point, Sanskrit can bring in a correction for a more accurate interpretation of the name Vakhtang. The name of the King should either have been Vrka-ang (wolf-bodied) or Vrka-anana (Wolf headed). Legend says that King Vakhtang wore a wolf's head as a helmet during battle.

The city of Tablisi lies on the River Kura. It is said the river gets its the name from Cyrus the Great, the emperor of Persia, whose Persian name was 'Kurus'. (Cyrus was the Greek interpretation of 'Kurus'). His name is akin to the name of the 'Kuru' (कुरु) dynasty of the Mahabharata. This connection is not too far fetched considering that in the ancient Iranian annals Kurus's father's name is recorded as 'Kambhoja' (काम्बोज), though the Greeks later recorded his name as Cambeses. 

In India, the name 'Kambhoja' is first attested in the later Brahmana stage (7th century BC) in the 'Vamsa Brahmana', as well as in Yaska's 'Nirukta'. 'Yasaka' was an ancient Sanskrit Grammarian who wrote the 'Nirukta' - a book that details the etymological sources of Vedic words and sutras (rules) that operate when deriving the meanings of Sanskrit rules. 'Yasaka' (5th-6th century BC) preceded the better known Sanskrit grammarian Panini (4th century BC).

me have contented that the River Kura gets its name from the ancient Albanian term for 'reservoir'. Once gain the Sanskrit connect is evident. In Sanskrit, 'karshu' (कर्षू) means 'river', so does 'kula' (कूल) which is more often used to refer to a 'river bank'. A 'kupa' (कूप) is a 'well' and 'kulya' (कुल्या) is a small river. Derivatives of 'kula' such as 'kulini' (कूलिनी) and 'kulvati' (कूलवती) also mean 'river'. 

It is also be possible that River Kura gets its name from that of the Kolchi inhabitants of ancient Georgia. The Kolchis were a dark skinned race and there name is possibly derived from the Sanskrit 'kala' (काल) meaning 'dark' or 'black'.

The Georgian endonym of River Kura is Mt'k'vari and is traced to the Georgian 'good water'. That too has a Sanskrit connect, for 'vaari' (वारि) and 'vaarii' (वारी) mean 'water' in Sanskrit. The first syllable could be a distortion of any number of words from Sanskrit.

At the centre of the city of Tablisi is Mt. Mtatsminda. Mtatsminda Mountain is translated as 'Holy Mountain' from Georgian. Sanskrit throws additional light on its name. 'Mtat-sminda' is a cognate of 'Matha-Sumedha' (मठ - सुमेध) which means 'Temple of Purity' in Sanskrit. 

Mtastsminda is also the seat of what is today know as Narikala fort. The fortress was established in the 4th century and its name was 'Shuris-tsikhe' and translates from Georgian as 'Formidable Fort'. In Sanskrit 'Shura' (शूर) means 'brave, warlike, daring' and hence is the equivalent of formidable. 'Tsikhe' is a cognate of the Sanskrit or 'shalaka' (शलका) which means 'rod'. But whether the 'rod' and 'fort' are connected is not clear at this point.

Another fort by the name of 'Upalistsikhe' translates from Georgian as 'Lord's fortress. In Sanskrit 'upalaksh' (उपलक्ष्) means 'distinguish'. Upa' (उप) by itself means 'above' or 'top'.

Mt. Mkinvartsveri, Georgia.
The name is translated as 'Ice Capped' from Georgian.
But in Sanskrit the 'varta' and 'sveri' in Mkinvartsveri refer to Sound'.
It implies that Mkinvartsveri was a 'Sound Making Volcano'.
The last syllable in Mkinvartasveri may also
refer to 'ishvari' which means 'Goddess' in Sanskrit.
The Volcano may thus have borne the name
'Goddess of Sound'
In deriving the etymology of the country name 'Georgia' once again the 'wolf' angle emerges. Wiktionary says that the name 'Georgia' derives from the Persian-Arabic 'gurg', borrowed ultimately from the Persian 'Varkana', meaning 'land of wolves'. It is interesting that Varkana itself comes from Sanskrit 'vrika' (वृक) meaning wolf. And 'ghurgura' (घुर्घुरा) is Sanskrit for 'growling' which explains the Persian Arabic 'gurg'. Most etymological dictionaries say that 'gurg' though related to 'wolf' is of unknown origin. But the powers of Sanskrit as a language are often ignored and hence the etymological source of words is never fully decoded .