Wednesday, 27 February 2013


The name Sweden is derived from Old English 'Sweooeod', which meant 'People of the Swedes'. The etymology of the word 'Swedes', and thus of 'Sweden', is derived from Proto-Germanic 'Swihoniz' which means 'one's own'. Herein lies the Sanskrit connect.

In Sanskrit, 'sva' (स्व) means 'ones's own', 'their own', 'relative', 'kinsmen', 'human soul' or 'self'. 'Svadha' (
स्वधा) means 'own place', 'own portion' or 'home'. 

There is a Vedic connect as well to the mythology of the Nordic countries (Scandinavia, Greenland,Iceland). Here is an example:

In the Nordic prose 'Edda', which it has been argued by some have their origins in the Vedas, the beginning of the world out of a 'gaping nothingness', is referred to as 'Ginnungagap'. 'Ginnungagap' is initiated by a great cow known as 'Audhumla'. The similarity to Vedic texts is striking.

According to the Vedas, the world originates from 'Hiranyagarbha' (हिरण्यगर्भ) which translates as the 'Golden Fetus' and is also the name of God Brahma, the Creator. Nordic 'Ginnungagap' - the gaping nothingness from which the world starts - is nothing but a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Hiranyagarbha'. The name of the cow in the Eddas is equally fascinating- 'Audhumla'. In Sanskrit 'Audhamula' means 'the root at the beginning of origin' - 'aadau' (आदौ) - 'at the beginning', 'mula' ( मूल) 'root' or 'origin'.

The 'Eddas' are about 1500 years old, the Vedas of course are much older. That there is a similarity between the Eddas and the Vedas is unquestionable. What is curious is that the similarities exist even though the Vedas and Eddas originated among people who geographically were 4000 miles and chronologically at least 2000 years apart. 

For more on the subject here are a couple of suggested Links:

Saturday, 23 February 2013


It is believed that Bosnia gets its name from Bosna River. The river's name was first recorded in the Roman chronicles as 'Bossina'. Philologist Anton Mayer has traced the name 'Bosna' to Proto Indo European (PIE) root 'bos' or 'bogh'*, which is the re-constructed word in PIE, taken to mean 'running water'.

Here's a look at the name 'Bosnia' through the Sanskrit lens while still retaining its PIE meaning . The Sanskrit root words for 'flow', 'water current' or 'flowing' are 'vAha' (वाह) and 'vaha' (वह) which in the Sanskrit derived languages, such as Hindi, have with time changed into 'baha' (बह). The transposition of the sound 'v' by 'b' is common as languages change and distort*. In fact, a variant of the Bosna River's name, still in use, is 'Vasana'.

Bosnia gets its name from River Bosnia
which is also called the 'Vasana'
probably a distortion of Sanskrit 'Vahana'
meaning 'to flow' or 'carry forward'.

In Sanskrit 'vahini'* (वाहिनी) means 'river' or a 'river channel'. 'Vaha' ( 
वाह ) as mentioned above means 'to flow' but it also means 'to carry'. It is from here that the the word 'vahana' (वाहन), meaning 'transportation cart or car', is derived. It is also the word from where the English 'vehicle' is derived. However, English dictionaries trace the word 'vehicle' to Proto Indo European 'wegh', which is taken to mean 'to carry'. In Sanskrit 'vega' (वेग) means 'momentum' or 'velocity'.

In fact, there is a river by the name of 'Vah' in neighboring Slovakia. It has two branches, Biely Vah (White Vah) and Cierny Vah (Black Vah). In Sanskrit 'Balaksha' (बलक्ष) means white and 'Krishn' (कृष्ण) means black - and 'Biely' and 'Cierny' may be related to the two Sanskrit words.

The  River 'Vah' , Slovakia
'Vah' ( वह) means 'to flow' in Sanskrit.

As an aside, the Sanskrit 'Vahini' has to do with 'moving, flowing or anything which has force'. It is therefore also the Sanskrit for 'armed forces'. For example, in the word 'Mukhti Bahini' (Bangladesh Liberation Force), once again 'Vahini' has changed into 'Bahini'.

* For a note on the Sanskrit connection to PIE 'bogh' click here

Wednesday, 20 February 2013


The name Finland is of uncertain origin. Many theories have been forwarded. The endonyms for Finland are 'Suomi' and 'Häme' and are said to have originated from a neutral expression like 'land' which in turn is traced to the Proto-Baltic 'zeme', meaning 'land'. But Proto-Baltic is an engineered language - and the form in which it existed is unknown. A close cognate of 'Suomi', Hame and the Proto-Baltic 'zeme' with the same meaning, that is, 'land' is the Sanskrit 'bhumi' (भूमि), also the source word for the Persian/Avasthan 'zamin'. 

There are many ethnonyms for the Finn community. Some are geographical, like the word 'Suomi' meaning land which as mentioned above can be traced to Sanskrit 'bhumi'. Another name for Finland is 'Karjala'. It is interesting that in Sanskrit 'KarjAla' (करजाल) means 'streams of light' which may be a reference to the 'northern lights' or 'auroras' visible in Finland. 

Northern Lights or Aurora in Finland
An ethnonym for Finland is 'Karjala'.
'Karjala ' means 'Stream of Light' in Sanskrit

Yet another ethnonym for the Finns is 'Viro'- though 'vira' (वीर) in Sanskrit means 'brave man', 'husband' or 'heroic' and is a closer cognate to 'Viro', it is 'virok' (विरोक) which means 'ray of light' that describes the auroras of Finland. 

There are other ethnonyms which are close cognates of Sanskrit words with valid meanings, but 'Karjala' and 'Virok' stand out because they point to the 'northern lights', a phenomenon unique to this part of the world.

Researchers say that the ethnonym 'Viro' is somehow linked to the word 'man', and have suggested that 'viro' may be a corruption of 'homme' since 'homme' means 'man'. But in that case, once again the Sanskrit 'vira' (वीर) which means 'man', particularly 'brave man' and a common name for men in the Indian Vedic scriptures, fits in much better.

Other names for the Finns include 'Vatja'. Here too there is a Sanskrit connection for 'vataja' (वातज) means 'air'. Yet another ethnonym for Finns is 'gaunija', in Sanskrit 'gaungika'(गौञ्जिक) means 'jeweller', and so on.

It is interesting to note that some exonyms for the Finns, including the Estonian 'Marahvas', are also valid Sanskrit words* . 'Marahva' (मारव) means 'related to wilderness' which may be a description of the geography of the ancient Finn region, but it is 'Mairava' (मैरव) which is more interesting, because it means 'related to Mt. Meru'. 'Meru' is the mythological 'Golden Mountain' whose name appears in Indian Vedic texts, in the name 'Sumer' (of Sumerian civilization) and in the folklore of Peru. One of the theories is that 'Mt. Meru' is located at the North Pole.

It has also been suggested that the original meaning for 'Finne' may be 'wanderer', an explanation describing the way of life of the people in Finland. Researchers are of the view that the stem 'finne' may originate from the same word as the German 'vende' which means 'wanderer'. That itself is a cognate of the 
Sanskrit 'vanch' (वञ्च्) meaning 'to go astray' or 'wander'.

As an aside, a quote from Col James Tod's book 'Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan'. Col James Tod was an employee of the East India Company in the last quarter of the 18th century. He researched the ancient chronicles of Rajasthan to which he was given access by the rulers of Jaisalmer in Rajasthan, India. He found in the ancient chronicles of Rajasthan chapters of the forgotten history of India. Tod wrote, "The Samoyedes and Tchoudes of Siberia and Finland were originally known as the Shyama-yadus and the Joudes of India - a reference to the Yadhu tribe of Sri Krishna. The languages of the two former races have a strong affinity and are classed as Indo-Germanic by Remu Klaproth, the author of the book 'Asia Polyglotta'."

Prior to Col. James Todd, researcher Remu Klaproth had traced the Samoyedes and Tchoudes tribes to Central Asia, where the Yadhu dynasty had long held sway. Lord Krishna, who was also known as 'Shya
ma' was the most prominent figure of the Yadhu tribe of India. The later generations  of His family were known as the 'Shyama Yadus' who are  the same as the Samoyedes of Siberia. The Tchoudes of Finland is the same tribe as the Yadhus of India.

Suggested Links: 

Thursday, 14 February 2013


Nazca, best known for the Nazca lines which are believed to have had astronomical functions, is located in the Peruvian arid desert and the Pampas de Jumana, some 400 km south of Lima, the capital of Peru. The geoglyphs of Nazca depict giant geometric forms (triangles, trapezoids, parallel lines) and biomorphs (birds, plants, and human-like forms) etched into the surface of the desert. The geoglyphs were made by scraping the dark surface of the stones exposing the lighter soil beneath.

Many have argued that the Nazca lines were entrenched into the ground surface for astronomy purposes. Here is a look at what the name 'Nazca' reveals if one were to look at it through the Sanskrit lens. 

The word 'Nazca' may be a distortion of 'Nakshatra' (नक्षत्र) which means 'asterism' or 'lunar mansion'. The word 'Nakshatra' derives from 'akshara' (अक्षर) which means that which is 'fixed', 'permanent' or 'imperishable'. It also means 'space' and is the name of both 'Vishnu' and 'Shiva'. The primordial sound 'Om' is also referred to as 'akshara'. Adding the 'na' to 'akshara' negates the meaning partly and indicates 'that which is imperishable yet transitory' implying the mapping of transitory positions of the imperishable stars and planets in the sky. Hence the word 'nakshatra'.

The Nazca Zodiac
In the local language Quechua, 'Nazca' means the land of 'suffering' and 'sorrow'. That sums up this barren land and the difficult terrain of the Nazca valley, which sees the confluence of many seasonal Peruvian rivers before they flow into the Pacific across the coastal Andes mountains. Nazca is known to have been named after the Nazca River (Rio Grande de Nazca). This is an attempt to decode the word 'Nazca' with the help of Sanskrit, a language which bears an uncanny resemblance to Quechua. 

In Sanskrit, one of the closest related cognates of 'Nazca' or 'Nasca' is 'nissah' (निःसह) which means 'suffering' and 'unbearable' as does the Quechua 'nazca' - which refers to the difficult terrain and the severe arid conditions of the valley. The Nazca are fed only by summer rains in the highlands. Watercourses are otherwise dry for most parts of the year. The Nazca desert is one of the driest on Earth. An even more appropriate word which describes the Nazca valley is the Sanskrit 'nishshah' (निष्षह्) which means 'overpowering'.

However, the Sanskrit words that most accurately describe the Nazca valley, are 'ni-sneh' ( निःस्नेह) and 'ni-srav' (निःस्राव) which both mean 'without moisture'. But they take us away from the Quechua meaning of the word Nazca.

Many scholars have long argued that the word 'Peru' may have named after the Sanskrit 'peru' (पेरु) which means 'sun', or 'golden mountain', rather than the more often cited source 'Biru', which was the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the 16th century.

Many cites and ancient monuments in Peru have names which are identical phonetically and in meaning to Sanskrit words. Examples include 'KoriKancha' (कोरितकाञ्च) and 'Virakocha' (वीरकोच). For more on the Sanskrit connection to 'Korikancha' and 'Virakocha', click here and here.

Another Peruvian name is the Pampas de Jumana - once again Jumana is a close cognate of 'Yamuna', also pronounced as 'Jamuna', the name of a river in the plains of India.

Pampas de Jumana has an interesting feature - it is one of the driest area in the world - and that has helped preserve the geoglyphs here. Also, the warm air here acts as a cushion and forces the winds to change direction - that too has restrained erosion here. The word 'yamana' (यमन) in Sanskrit means that which 'restrains' and 'binds'.

Is the likeness of Peruvian names to Sanskrit a coincidence? Possible. But, as more and more ancient cites are excavated and their names reveal closeness to Sanskrit, ignoring the leads may only de-accelerate the pace of unveiling the truths of world history.

As an aside, the geoglphs of Nazca resemble the nearby motifs of Paracas. The best known of the Paracas motifs is the shining, resplendent 'Trident of Paracas' that dates back to an era prior to the etching of the Nazca lines. For a note on the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Paracas' click here.

Tuesday, 12 February 2013


Ever wondered how the 'Ursa Major' constellation, also called the 'Great Bear' got its name. Here is a look:

In ancient Indian texts 'Ursa Major' or the 'Great Bear' constellation is known as the 'Sapta Rishi' (सप्त-ऋषि, सप्तर्षि) or the 'Seven Sages'. 'Sapta (सप्त) is of course the root word of 'septa' which means 'seven'. The Persian 'hafta' which means 'seven' or 'a week' also derives from the Sanskrit 'sapta'. 'Rishi' (ऋषि) means a 'sage', but it also means 'a ray of light' or 'a hymn'. So 'Sapta Rishi' means the 'Seven Sages' or the more appropriate 'Seven Rays of Light' corresponding to the seven major stars in the Sapta Rishi* constellation.

The popular term 'Sapta Rishi' itself is an everyday term, derived for the original and more scientific 'Sapta-Riksha' (सप्त ऋक्ष). The most common meaning of the word 'Riksa' (ऋक्ष) in Sanskrit is 'Bear'. Which brings us back to the terms 'Great Bear' and 'Ursa Major'. If one were to check any dictionary, such as www. or for the etymology of terms 'Ursa' or 'Bear, both 'Ursa' and 'Bear' are linked to te Sanskrit 'Riksa' (ऋक्ष) which means 'bear'. (Of course the dictionaries say that  'riksa' is Proto-Indo-European, but it is the exact same word as the Sanskrit 'riksa'). The 'rs' sound in 'Ursa' also comes from 'riksha'. 'Ursa Major' also translates as the 'Great Bear' from Latin.

But 'bear' is only one of the meanings of 'riksh' in Sanskrit. Its scientific  meaning is  'star', 'lunar mansion', and 'a segment of the lunar ecliptic'. It is from this 'Riksha' that the Sanskrit 'antariksha' (अन्तरिक्ष), literally 'the space between the stars', its actual meaning being 'space or atmosphere', is derived from.

The word 'Riksh' appears in many other Sanskrit combination words including 'Rikshesh' ( ऋक्षेश ) which means 'moon', Rikshraj (ऋक्षराज्) which means 'lord of the stars', 'Rikshamantra (ऋक्षमन्त्र) which refers to 'mantras addressed to the moon'.

The Western scholars, either by design or by error, selected 'bear', the more common translation of the word 'rksha' (ऋक्ष) over 'star'. And the Seven Stars' constellation became the 'Great Bear'.
* The seven major stars within 'Sapta-Rishi' are named hence:

1. Visvamitra or Alpha Ursæ Majoris
2. Jamadagni or Beta Ursæ Majoris
3. Bharadvaja or Gamma Ursæ Majoris
4. Gautama or Delta Ursæ Majoris
5. Atri or Epsilon Ursæ Majoris
6. Vasistha or Zeta Ursæ Majoris
7. Kasyapa or Eta Ursæ Majoris

Monday, 11 February 2013


'Yatha Pinde Tatha Brahmand'. ( यथा  पिण्ड  तथा ब्रह्माण्ड ) . As is the body, so is the universe. So say the Vedas. What you see in the body exists in the universe - all processes, all elements, the material and the spiritual, the animate and the inanimate.
Everything on this planet including our bodies are made of the same 92 elements that the rest of the Universe is made of. Every atom that is a part of our body today was a part of a collapsed star somewhere in the distant universe. Every atom in our body is 4 billion years old and dates back to the Big Bang moment when the material universe was created as a reflection of 'Absolute Consciousness' or 'Brahman' (ब्रह्मन्), also often translated as 'the Absolute of the Universe'.

We are all Stardust really.

At a spiritual and non-material level we are all a part of the 'Absolute Consciousness" which pre-dates the 'Big Bang' moment. Time itself did not exist. And that is a dichotomy. How did something exist before the time when time itself did not exist.

Tuesday, 5 February 2013


The three best known ancient cities of the Amazon are Themiskyra, Chadesia and Lykastia. The location of Lykastia as mentioned in the writings of Apollonius Rhodius, (3rd century BC) suggests, that Lykastia city is geographically identical with where the ruins of DundarTepe have been discovered. So, once again the name 'Tepe' crops up! Other examples of course include 'Goebekli Tepe' in Turkey or 'Tilliya Tepe' in Afghanistan.

In Sanskrit 'stupa' (स्तूप) means a 'heap' or a 'mound'. In Pali the word 'stupa' distorts to 'thupa' and means a 'mound'. As a verb 'stup' (स्तूप्) means 'to heap up' or 'to erect a structure'. As an adjective 'tupara' (तूपर) means something that is blunt or rounded - like a 'mound'. The word 'tepe' is probably a distortion of the Sanskrit 'tupara'.

Traditionally in India, any place where someone engaged in spiritual meditation, became known as Tapovan (तपोवन), which included places such as forest groves and mountain caves. Tapovan is a combination word with two parts, 'tapa' (तप) means 'meditation' and 'austerity'. 'Vana' (वन) means 'forest', 'thicket', or 'any distant land'.

Though 'Tepe' is often translated as mountain or mound (as in Goebekli Tepe), 'tepe' often had more to do with 'meditation', 'observation', 'austerity' and 'spiritualism' and the places where the sages and seers practiced meditation and observation, which were often hills and mountains, but not just hills and mountains. Forests and thickets were places of meditation as well. In the ancient Native tongue of the Pemon, the indigenous people who inhabited the Grana Sabana region of Venezuela, the word 'tepui' means 'house of the gods'. However, with time these 'houses of gods' and 'spiritual tapa', became centres for political administration. They were often located on a hill surrounded by a village. In South America, there are innumerable examples - Tepentita, Tepetzintala, Mazatepec, and of course Dundertepe.

Another city of the Amazon was 'Chadesia'. The second syllable 'desh' (देश) means 'land' or 'country' in Sanskrit. Close to 'Chadesia' city are the impressive ancient ruins of 'Akalan'. Was 'Akalan' an observatory. Kala (काल) is Sanskrit for 'time'. Also, the word 'Kala' or 'Cala' appears in the names of many ancient sites around the world - especially the ones that are thought to be 'observatories' - such as the 'Kalasasaya' temple in Bolivia or the Callanish Megalithic Site in Scotland. (For more about the Sanskrit connection to the name Kalasasaya in Bolivia, click here. And for more on the Sanskrit Connection to Callanish Megalithic site click here. )

A town by the name of 'Chajasa' was the capital city of 'Chadesia'. In literal Sanskrit 'Chajasha' (छा - झष) means 'concealed forest', or 'cover from sun-heat'. 'Cha' (छा) means concealed or covered. 'Jhasa' (झष) means 'forest or sun-heat'. Was 'Chajasa' really the town of 'Themiskyra'? Though its existence is often regarded as a myth and is dismissed as Greek innovations of the stories about Amazon, 'Themiskyra' is described as a 'hidden forest city, difficult to be traced', which corresponds with the meaning of the word 'Chajasa' in Sanskrit.

And, if there is a Sanskrit link to the names of these cities of the Amazon, what about the name 'Amazon' itself. That is coming up in a future post.

Suggested Links:
1. Amerika: Timeless World by Hector Burgos Stone

Sunday, 3 February 2013


River 'Apurimac' rises from the glacial meltwater of the Nevado Misi Mountain and flows in the Arequipa Province of Southern Peru. Its name Apurimac is said to have been derived from the Native American Quenchua language, the first word 'Apu' means 'divinity' and the second, 'Rimac' means 'Oracle'. The two words together roughly translate as 'Divine Oracle'.

Quechua bears an uncanny resemblance to Sanskrit as do the names of many Peruvian rivers and mountains. If 'Apurimac' were to be decoded with the aid of Sanskrit, this is what Apurimac will translate as:

'Apu' (आपू) means 'to flow forward after purification', 'to purify' or 'flow forward in a course as a stream'. The form 'Apurima' (आपूरिमा) would covert the verb 'Apu' into a noun or pronoun of feminine gender, which aptly describes a river.

Even if the word Apurimac is split into two words 'Apu' (आपू) and 'Ramac' (रमक) as has been done for the Quechua decode, it still makes perfect sense in Sanskrit. 'Apu' (आपू) as mentioned above means 'to flow forward after purification', and, 'ramak' (रमक) means 'sporting, dallying, toying amorously' - again an apt description for a flowing river.

Another word that fits in appropriately is 'apa' (अप), which means 'water'. 'Aparamak' roughly translates as 'dallying flowing water'.

Then there are other close cognates in Sanskrit: 'Aparima' (अपरिमा) means 'that which is immense or immeasurable' - which could be a reference to the size of the 'Aparimac'. Then there is 'Apara' (अपार) which means 'boundless' or 'without boundary'.

If there is a link between Quechua and Sanskrit, then a look at Peruvian names with the aid of Sanskrit may reveal hidden information about this great civilization.