Monday, 30 December 2013


At Latitude 17.4167S and Longitude178.150000E, in the Nakauvadra Mountain Range in Fiji, a megalithic site near the village of Narara was discovered a few years back. No one yet knows the significance of the 13 standing stones hidden in the caves of Narara. However, researchers say that many standing stones located at megalithic sites around the world align with planets and major stars of the skies. For example the ancient Chankillo observatory in Peru too has 13 towers of which the first and the last are aligned with the Summer and Winter solstices. Whether the same is true of the 13 stones of Narara is not known.

Here is a look at some place names of Fiji. 'Nakauvaudra' is a slightly distorted form of the Sanskrit 'nAku' (नाकु) and 'vadra'
(वड्र). 'Naku' means 'mountain' and 'vadra' means 'large'. The name 'naku' also appears at other ancient megalithic sites around the world - the most prominent of which is Tiwanaku in Latin America.

'Nakauvadra' Mountain Range, Fiji.
'Naku' means 'mountain' and 'Vadra' means
 'large' in Sanskrit
Close to Nakauvadra are many villages with very interesting names. One such name is 'Vatukacevaceva'. It sounds as if the name is derived from Sanskrit 

'Vatika' (वाटिका) means 'garden' or 'enclosure'. And 'ceva-ceva' may be a distortion of 'Shiva-Shiva'. Vatukacevaceva - 'Garden of Shiva'! In fact, even the name 'Suva' - the capital of Fiji sounds as a distortion of  the name 'Shiva'.

Then there is the Sanskrit 'Vatuka' (वटक) which means 'round'. 'Vatu' (वतू) means 'River of Heaven'.

Village Vatukacevaceva
Vatukacevacevapronounced as 'Vatukar-theva-theva'.
In Sanskrit both 'Vatika' (वाटिक )
and 'Tevana' (तेवन ) mean 'garden'
Another village is known as Vatukarasa. Again 'rasa' (रस) is a Sanskrit word. 'Rasa' has many meanings including 'fluid', 'earth', 'elixir' and it is even the name of a mythological river which flows around the world!

Suggested Links:
1. Mt. TaraNaki, NewZealand
2. Sil Nakya, Arizona
3. TiwaNaku, Bolivia

Friday, 27 December 2013


River Cuyahoga, Ohio

River Cuyahoga, Ohio. The word Cuyahoga means "Crooked River" in Iroquios. It is difficult to figure out what the Sanskrit link to this word might be in Sanskrit - not because there are no cognates, but because there are so many!

In Sanskrit, 'Kulya' (कुल्या), 'KUlya' (कूल्या) and 'Kulini' (कूलिनी), all mean 'river'. These may all lead to the genesis of the word 'Cuya'. Or 'Cuya' may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'kruta' (क्रुक्त) or 'Kutila' (कुटिल) both of which mean 'crooked'.

'Apaga' (आपगा) means river, 'aga' (अग) means 'water-jar' or 'water-pitcher'. You see the word 'aga' in the names of rivers such as 'Ganges' which is known as 'Ganga' in Sanskrit. The word 'aga' also appears in the name 'Volga' which incidentally was also known as 'Jal-aga' in ancient times. By that logic the suffix 'hoga' in Cuyahoga may be a distortion of 'aga' .

One may look at any of the following Sanskrit word-combinations which would all mean 'Crooked River' in Sanskrit:

1. Kutila-Apaga
2. Kulya-Hurna
3. Kulya-Hurna-Apaga

However, the most apt Sanskrit word for 'Cuyahoga' in Sanskrit is  'Kutilaga'. 'Kutilaga'  (कुटिलगा) means 'going crookedly',  it also means 'a river'! 

But is there a link between the Sanskrit language and Native American languages? In 1909, a white lady by the name of Mrs. Helen Troy, was initiated into the Onondaga Native American tribe. Mrs. Troy and her mentor, Mrs. Isaac Thomas - the daughter of a Mohawk chief, had “delved deeply into the fascinating mythology of the Indians, of which comparatively little is known.” Troy and Thomas were both reportedly working on “a dictionary of the languages of the Six (Iroquious) Nations.” Their compilation of Onondaga and Mohawk words was said to total 30,000. On completion of the manuscript, Mrs. Troy commented “There exists no doubt,” stated Mrs. Troy, “that the mythology of the Iroquois antedates that of the Greeks and Romans, and in fact all other peoples just as their language does that of the Hebrews and all others.” She further claimed “that Onondaga, the mother tongue of all the languages, mothered also Sanskrit.” She had indeed found the two languages to be closely linked. 

The Cuyahoga originates in springs in the highlands of Geauga County, in the adjoining townships of Hambden and Montville. The headwaters of three watercourses in the Lake Erie basin are located in Geauga County. It is said that Geauga County is named after the Onondaga word 'jyo’ä·gak' or Seneca 'jo’ä·ka', both meaning 'racoon'. In Sanskrit a close cognate of 'jyo’ä·gak' and 'jo’ä·ka' is 'jahaka' (जहका) translates as 'hedgehog' - not quite rocoon. But 'Geauga' seems to be closer in meaning to the Sanskrit 'Jalaja' (जलज) which means 'born in water'.

Monday, 16 December 2013


In the 'Cyclopaedia: Or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and Literature' (1819), Abraham Rees, the author states, "We cannot refrain from briefly alluding, in this place, to some supposed co-incidences in Indian and Irish mythology..... and we allude to them here in view of the opportunity of saying that poetical traditions existed, and perhaps still exist in Ireland, of a mythological origin and junction of three rivers, reminding us strongly of the Indian Triveni."

Killkenny, the 'Triveni' of the rivers Barrow, Nore & Suir.

Referring to the three rivers of Killkenny in his book 'Oriental Fragments', Edward Moore says, "We accordingly find the sangam or the prayag or the union of the rivers... the Barrow, Nore and Suir - the "three sisters", the "Triveni", the "three plaited locks" of Hibernia, near Killkenny, her Devi-prayaga , is duly celebrated in Hibernian poetics."  Hibernia is the classical Latin name for Ireland.

A round tower has been identified as the oldest surviving structure in the town of Kilkenny. The town of Kilcullen (in Kildare county) hosts another ancient round tower. Edward Moore makes an observation. He states, "At Kilcullen and Kilkenny are two of those very curious round towers, the origin and uses of which have so baffled the researches of antiquaries....... If, on farther inquiry, they should all, or mostly, be found, like these two, connected with towns or hills, bearing KaLic names, it would be a somewhat curious clue for a farther line of investigation. Such things in India would be deemed Lingaic or Sivaic."

Edward Moore had put forth the view that many names of towns (including Kilkenny, Kilmoor, Kilcummin, Kilcullen and Kildare etc.) in Ireland have originated from the Sanskrit word 'kala' (काल), 'kala'  meaning both 'black' and 'time'. 

The 'Stone of Destiny' atop the 
'Hill of Tara' located between Navan and Dunshaughlin
 in County Meath.  

Interestingly, the 'Stone of Destiny located at the Hill of Tara close to 'Dunshauglin' has been equated with the 'shivalingas' of India. Dunshaughlin is an interesting name. Ireland abounds in 'dun', or 'don' or 'down' as the initial, final, or sole names of places. British scholars, with some knowledge of Sanskrit, made the observation that the names 'dun', 'don' or 'down' were extensively connected to 'hilly' or 'mountainous' regions,  however were unable to pin-point the source of these words to any Sanskrit root word. It is likely though that these words have more to do with the Sanskrit word for 'valley' which is either 'dari' (दरी) or 'droni' (द्रोणि) rather than any Sanskrit word for 'hill' or 'mountain'.

Gap of Dunloe, Black valley, Ireland.
The word 'Dun' probably derived from Sanskrit 'droni'.
The Sanskrit 'droni' (द्रोणि) appears as 'dun' in the name
Dehradun, meaning the 'Valley of Dehra' in India.

The Sanskrit 'dari' (दरी ) also means 'valley'.

Suggested Links:

1. The Cyclopaedia: Or Universal Dictionary of Arts, Science and Literature, Vol 36
2. The Round Towers of Ireland by Henry O'Brien

Wednesday, 11 December 2013


The Niger River is the principal river of western Africa, extending about 4180 km. It originates in the Guinea Highlands, which is a densely forested mountainous plateau extending from central Guinea, through Sierra Leone, Liberia and Cote d' Ivore. 

In his travelogue 'Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa', Mungo Park (1771 – 1806), a Scottish explorer of the African continent who was the first Westerner known to have traveled to the central portion of the Niger River lists a number of towns that he passed through while sailing up the Niger in the years 1795-97. The names include Joanakakonda, Tallika, Fatteconda, Sami, Jarra, Samapaka, Wavara, Mellacota.  Many of these names have a decidedly Indic nuance - many Sanskritic and as many explained through Tamil or Telegu. 

In his book, 'Oriental Fragments', author Edward Moor lists names of many African towns and villages mentioned by various European explorers in Africa which include Jonakakonda, Tendikonda, Kootakunda, Barraconda, Seesekund, Tandacunda, Fatteconda and Mauraconda. He then equates them with the names of towns in southern parts of India which have similar names.

In a letter to the Asiatic Journal of July 1817, Issue 1, Volume 1, Edward Moor states, " .. with a little of this license where wanted, and it may be allowed to others as well as distressed etymologists let us try to turn Park's names into Hindi. Jonaka-konda is Janeka-kunda, or the hill of Janeka...". Kootakunda may also be traced to India. 'Kuta (कुट)  means a mountain, while 'kUta' (कूट) means 'dwelling'.

Of the suffix 'konda' one may point out that unlike the Telegu 'kunda' which means a hill, in Sanskrit 'kund' (कुण्ड) means a 'pool'. However, 'kAanda' (काण्ड) means a 'heap' and it is this 'kAanda' which might be related to the Telegu 'kunda' or 'hill'. Also 'khanda' (खंड) means 'piece' or 'section'. In any case, the similarity of these names is unmistakable. 

The River Niger which originates in the Guinea Highlands in Southern Guinea runs a crescent course -shaped like the top knot of Lord Shiva -  through  Mali, Niger, on the border with Benin and then through Nigeria, discharging through the Niger Delta.

The Crescent shaped bend on the River Niger

As it flows through Mali, near the island of Madjie, the Niger branches into three streams, forming a sort of a 'Triveni'. 

The encircled part where the River's Moussa and River Niger
 meet and form a 'Triveni'. In the middle of this intersection is a
small island.

As one follows the most easterly of the three streams down the current for a few minutes, it is said that one will suddenly come in sight of an elevated rock. The mountain is called Kesa by the natives. Mt. Kesa forms a small island, and is about three hundred feet in height, which renders it a conspicuous and a remarkable object. In the book 'Celebrated Travels and Travelers', the author Jules Verne states, "Mt. Kesa is greatly venerated by the natives of this part of the country."

Mt. Kesa on the island where the River Niger meets River Moussa,
'Kesa' is the name of Vishnu and Krishna both
Lord Shiva is also known as 'Vyoma-Kesha'.
The local inhabitants worshipped this 300 ft. stone.

Kesha is the name of both Lord Vishnu and Sri Krishna. Lord Shiva is also known as Vyoma-Kesha, which means, 'one whose hair is widespread in space'. Lord Shiva is known for 'having bound the river Ganges in his hair'. Mt. Kesa or Kesha, located on an island made by the triveni-like intersection of the Niger and Moussa rivers, was a place of worship for the local inhabitants of this part of Africa.

in 1805 Mungo Park once again went on an expedition, on the central portion of the River Niger where the path of the Niger takes the shape of the crescent and Mungo Park mentions the route that he had taken on this trip in his travelogue . The route that he took included place names such as Downie - Jinbala - Kamala - Ganga - Yamina - Calimana. 

A section of  Mungo Park's Exploration route on the Niger
The three highlighted town names would be expected while someone was travelling in India. But these are names of African towns that Mungo recorded on his trip on River Niger more than 200 years ago. 

Other intriguing names that appears on the Nigeria-Cameroon border include 'Mandara'.The Mandara Mountains (Monts Mandara) are a volcanic range extending about 200 km along the northern part of the Cameroon-Nigeria border.  

The name Mandara is obviously Indian. It is the name of the mountain that appears in the 'Samudra Manthan' episode in the Hindu Puranas, where it is used as a rod to churn the ocean of milk. Vishnu's serpent, Vasuki, offered to serve as the rope pulled on one side by a team of asuras, and on the other, by a team of devas

The Mandara Mountain Range
forms the Nigeria-Cameroon Border

Kapsiki Peak is one of the most photographed
arts of the Mandara Mountains. 
Wikipedia states that the Kapsiki Peak, also called the Rhumsiki 'plug' (remnant of a dormant volcano) is very obviously phallic and traditionally barren women prayed at its foot". In the Vedic tradition, women make offerings of the 'mandara flower' to  the 'Shivalingas' - the symbol of Lord Shiva. 

For a note on the Sanskrit connection to  the name Niger click here.

Suggested Links:

1. The story of the Niger
2. Celebrated Travels and Travellers, by Jules Verne
3. Mt. Kesha
4. Journal of an Expedition to Explore the course and the termination of the Niger by Richard. Lander and John Lander
5. The Northern Star or Yorkshire Magazine: Conjectures Concerning the River Niger
6. The Jouranla of a Mission to the Niger by Mungo Park
7. The London Encyclopedia: Niger

Tuesday, 26 November 2013


On one of his flights over the jungles of Mosquitia in Honduras in the 1920s, Charles Lindberg, the first solo aviator to have crossed the Atlantic, caught a glimpse of what he thought was the 'Lost City of the Monkey God' where, legend says that local indigenous people worshipped huge 'Monkey Sculptures'. 

Working on this lead given by Charles Lindberg, Theodore Morde - an American adventurer, combed the jungles of Mosquitia in Honduras in search of the 'Lost City of the Monkey God'. Later in 1940 Theodore Morde claimed that he had finally found the lost city. Morde was to return to the site with his team to announce the exact location of the site but he was killed in a car accident. The legend of the Monkey God city has been known to the world since at least the times of the Spanish invaders in the 1500s. The Spanish named the site 'Ciudad Blanca' or White City and they believed that it was the location of treasures of gold hidden since ancient times.

An artists's representation of the legend of
'Monkey God Worship'
at Ciudad Blanca in Mosquitia, Hondurus
Recently researchers from the University of Houston and the National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping flew over the Mosquitia region and revealed that there indeed is evidence of a plaza dotted with ancient pyramids now reclaimed by the jungle on the east end of Honduras. On the western end of Honduras is the city of Copan - the site of the ancient Howler Monkey God statue. 

Ancient 'Monkey God' Sculpture, Copan, Hondurus.
Because of his stance and the mace
in his hand, he has been equated with
Sri Hanuman of Ramayana
Local legends of Hondurus does not add much more information to the partly forgotten story about monkey worship in Ciudad Blanca in Mosquitia or about the Howler Monkey God statue of Copan.

But the Hindu epic Ramayana, truly an epic in a bigger way than has ever been acknowledged, sheds some light. In the Kishkinda Kanda of the Ramayana, we find that Sugreeva is crowned as the commander-in-chief of the 'vanaras' (monkey commandos).

Not too long after his crowning, the Ramayana states, Sugreeva instructs the vanaras, stationed around the world, to assemble and organize themselves to carry out the job at hand, which is the search of Sita, the abducted wife of the God-King Sri Rama. For those who are driven by logic (and not swayed by the medieval interpretation of Ramayana) the facts stare us in the face.

To cross check the the facts refer to Kishkinda Kanda or Book- 4 of the Valmiki Ramayana. Chapter 37, verses 1-9, which describe the recruitment of 'vanaras'  from within Jambhudvipa (India) and from around the world:

1. "Convoke the Vanaras available on the summits of these five mountains, namely Mt. Mahendra, Mt. Himalaya, Mt. Vindhya, and Mt. Kailash and those that are on the whitish peak of Mt. Mandara.". (Verse 4-37-2). This refers to recruitment of the vanaras from the Indian region.

2. "As well as those that are on the mountains where the ocean ends, there by seashore, 'Udaya Adri', namely 'Sunrise-Mountain,' which mountains will always be dazzling with the tinge of youthful sun. And them that are on the mountains which shine in the ochry hue of evening clouds, 'Asta Adri, namely 'Sunset-Mountain' and which mountains are situated at the Palace of Sun". (Verse 4-37-3). This refers to the recruitment of the vanaras from other parts of the world, more specifically, from the Andes of South America

That the Udaya Adri is indeed one of the peaks of the Andes is clear because the Ramayana also mentions the 'Paracas Trident of the Andes'. Click here to read more about the Ramayana link to the 'Paracas Trident of Peru'.

Paracs Trident of Peru is mentioned in
Kishkinda Kanda of the Ramayana, Chapter 40 Verse 53
Here is the verse from the Ramayana that mentions the Paracs Trident of Peru:  "A golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches as its heads is established on the peak of that mountain as the insignia of that great-souled Ananta, and it will be lustrous with a golden podium. [4-40-53]."

Tracing the path of the sun after it has risen from Udaya Adri (Andes), the author Sage Valmiki says, that the sun becomes visible in Jambhudvipa (India), only to then go across where the Indus falls into the sea at Karachi, beyond the mountain ranges (Zagros of Iran/Iraq) where it sets at 'Asta Adri' (Sunset Mountain). It then passes over Mt. Meru (North Pole) only to once again rise from Udaya Adri (Andes of South America).

There are many ancient sites in South America who's
 history remain unexplained. Many of these seem to have close Vedic - Hindu ties in terms of the similarity of temple architecture, the Sanskrit like names of these sites such as Kori-Kanchan or Tivanaku, or the Havan Kund like 'fire worship structures' such as the one at Paraiso that have survived  to tell part of the story. In time science and archaeology may help to piece the rest of the puzzle.

Update: The Lost City or Ciudad Blanca, a legendary archaeological site located in the depths of the jungles of Mosquitia, seems to have been discovered by Honduran and American scientists through a satellite scan. According to reports by experts in archeology of the Honduran Institute of Anthropology and History (IHAH), the existence of Lost City or Ciudad Blanca is real but the authorities have preferred to keep the location anonymous to prevent looting by international traffickers in antiquities. 

The location of the Lost City of the Monkey Gods
has been kept anonymous by the Honduras authorities.

Monday, 18 November 2013


The Biblical name of 'Syria' was 'Aram; and the language of the Bible is known as 'Aramiac'.

In the year 2009, 50 km north of Damascus in Syria, was discovered evidence of an ancient
civilization in an uninhabitable part of Syria. There are massive stonehenge like stones here, which archaeologists say, are about about 8000-10000 years old.However, the archaeologists have no clue what those structures might be. They call it the 'Syrian Stonehenge' and are perplexed at what this site might have been used for. The history of the region sheds absolutely no light on this mystery.

The ancient Indian epic Ramayana gives a few clues though. The Ramayana mentions a number of structures or manors built by 'Vishwakarma' - the celestial architect, massive in size, some shaped like a mountain, others circular in shape, spread around the world. One example is the structure by the name 'Chakravan'. In Kishkinda Kanda of the Ramayana, the 'vanara' commando leader, Sugreeva, provides a route-map to each of the four 'vanara' brigades travelling in four different directions in search of Sita, the abducted wife of God-King Sri Rama. Read an earlier blog on the details of the sojourn of the 'vanaras' travelling West and to 'Chakravan' here.

That the 'vanaras' are headed beyond present day Indian borders to what we call the 'Middle East' is evident from the description of the sea (Arabian), mountain peaks (of the Zagros range of Iran/Iraq) and the tall 'palm' trees that the 'vanaras' encounter en-route. Other clues include the fact that Sugreev tells the 'vanaras' to go west, pass the point where the Indus falls into the sea (which is in present day Karachi), and then move forward up unto the 'fourth quarter of the sea' (Arabian) till they pass many mountains (Zagros) and see Chakravan, a circular built by the celestial architect Vishwakarma. 

Crossing that they are told they will pass Mt. Varaha. Onward they will come across Mt. Meghvanta, moving forward they will see a mountain range of many peaks of which one is the majestic Mt. Meru. Then they are instructed to move to their final destination - Astagiri (which translates as 'Sunset Hill').

On Mt. Astagiri they are told they will find a huge and majestic multi-storied manor, also built by the celestial architect 'Vishwakarma' - this is a second example of a massive structure built by the celestial architect mentioned in the Ramayana in the Kishkinda Kanda. Says the Ramayana, "On the pinnacle of Mt. Astagiri, or the Mt. Dusk, there is a supreme and heavenly manor-house compacted with multi-storied buildings, which in shine will be similar to Sun and which is arranged by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect. " [4-42-44]

The gigantic structures built by the celestials, west of India, which Sugreeva' says elsewhere in the epic are visible from the skies, must have left some traces, signs and ruins. In Eurasia, recent excavations at stonehenge like sites include Goebkli Tepe and Nevali Cori in Turkey, Arkaim in Russia, Balbek in Lebanon and the sites of Urkesh and the 'Syrian Stonehenge' near Damascus. Syria is the western most country to the east of the Mediterranean Sea.

Where is Mt. Astagiri of the Ramayana? 'Astagiri' translates as 'Sunset Mouintain' and is the western most point that Sage Valmiki says he is aware about. Beyond that limit he writes, "...we have no knowledge of those sunless and boundless realms available far and beyond." [4-42-51]

Is the Syrian Stonehenge, the majestic, multi-storied manor built by celestial architect Vishwakarma for Varuna (God of the Sea and Ocean) mentioned in the Ramayana the Syrian stonehenge? The Syrian Stonehenge is located close to the Mediterranean Sea, on a mountain. The majestic multi storied structure of the Ramayana too was located on a mountain at the furthermost point beyond which as per Valmiki (the author of Ramayana) no culture had yet evolved.

The massive stonehenge like structures at this Syrian excavation site could not have been constructed without some kind of advanced technology and hence their construction may be attributed to celestial or divine architects. Though the ruins of a partially-destructed monastery built much later during the Roman times still stand, architects have found that it is built over the much more ancient multi-layered megalithic structure of which they have no historical record.

An aerial view of the Syrian Stonehenge
excavation site 50 km from Damascus.

A monastery was built during the Roman times
over the far more ancient Syrian Stonehenge.

A monastery was built during the Roman times over the far more ancient Syrian Stonehenge. The Hindu Epic Ramayana mentions 'a supreme and heavenly manor-house compacted with multi-storied buildings, which in shine is similar to Suna and which was designed by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect'.

Another view of the site of the Syrian Stonehenge.
A monastery built by the Romans stands on this ancient site.

The Ramayana also states that in a region, west of India, after crossing many mountain peaks, on 'Mt. Asta-giri' where the sun sets, is Lord Varuna's (Vedic Sea-God's) multi-storied manor.

Was Valmiki describing this Syrian structure to
the 'vanara'  when he wrote 
about the multi-level manor
built by the celestial architect Vishwakarma? 

This contention is not far-fetched at all if you were to check out some place names even today in Syria. The ancient name of Syria's largest port city Latakia was Ramitha. A certain part of the city (at co-ordinates 35°35'15"N 35°44'10"E is still known as Ramitha. The city of Ramitha is identified as the same as 'Ramoth'. The name Ramoth is mentioned 33 times in the Bible as stated here.

There is another fairly large town in Syria by the name Ram. Another village by the name 'Kafr Ram' in central Syria, is the site of a well known little pond which bears the name 'Rehmat er Ram'. Then there is Lake Ram on Mt. Hermon.

Lake Ram, Near Mt. Hermon, Syria. The name of the mountain
may itself have been derived from the name 'Rama'. Mt. Hermon
was also known as 'Senir' which is said to be derived from the
words Syria or Assyria, ultimately from Sanskrit 'Sura and 'Asura'.

That Syria and Assyria are names derived from the Sanskrit 'Sura' (सुर) and 'Asura (असुर) is an idea which has found support of quite a few well known scholars. Also, Edward Pollocke in his book 'India in Greece' attributed the name Syria to the Sanskrit 'Surya' (सूर्य) meaning 'sun'. He wrote, "The term Syria is derived from the Indian tribes that, under the appellation of Surya, or the Sun, gives its enduring name to the province of Suriya, now Syria".
** Here are the verses about the 'Multistorey Manor on a Hill' in the Valmiki Ramayana. (Kishkinda Kand Section 42, Verse 44). Courtesy:

शृंगे तस्य महत् दिव्यम् भवनम् सूर्य संनिभम् |
प्रासाद गण संबाधम् विहितम् विश्वकर्मणा || ४-४२-४

tasya shRinge = on its, pinnacle, [Mt. Astagiri's pinnacle];
praasaada gaNa sambaadham = building with many stories, or multi-storey, compacted with terraces; 

suurya sannibham = similarto Sun in shine;
mahat = a supreme; divyam = a heavenly;
bhavanam = manor-house; vishvakarmaNaa vihitam = by Vishvakarma, arranged - is there.

"On the pinnacle of Mt. Astagiri, or the Mt. Dusk, there is a supreme and heavenly manor-house compacted with multi-storied buildings, which in shine will be similar to Sun and which is arranged by Vishvakarma, the Divine Architect. [4-42-44]

शोभितम् तरुभिः चित्रैः नाना पक्षि समाकुलैः |
निकेतम् पाश हस्तस्य वरुणस्य महात्मनः || ४-४२-४५

citraiH = with amazing ones;
naanaa pakSi sam aakulaiH = with diverse, birds, well [musically,] twittering;

tarubhiH shobhitam = with trees, brightened with; mahaa aatmanaH = great-souled one; paasha hastasya = tether, in hand [wielder of];

varuNasya niketam = Sea-God Varuna's, villa - is there.
"That villa is brightened by amazing trees, on which diverse birds will be twittering musically, belongs to the great-souled Varuna, the Rain-god, who wields a tether. [4-42-45].

Suggested Links:
1. Syria's Mysterious Stonehenge
2. The Surya Asurya Split

Thursday, 31 October 2013


Archaeologists in Peru have unearthed a previously undiscovered temple, believed to be about 4500 years old at the famous El Paraiso site, located not far from Lima, the capital city of Peru. 

An ancient Fire Temple in Lima, Peru, close to
the site of the Paracas Trident was discovered in January, 2013
The Fire Temple structure is similar to the
Vedic 'Havan Kund'
On the western edge of the Paraiso Complex is a temple which is described thus, "A small stone structure which features walls coated in yellow clay and traces of red paint, is thought to be around 4,500 years old and has already been dubbed the Temple of Fire. It was discovered within the western wing of the main El Paraiso pyramid. The hearth located in the newly discovered structure was used to burn ceremonial offerings." Marco Guillen, who led the team of researchers interpreted his findings and said, “The smoke allowed the priests to connect with the gods.” 

However, this explanation is a little too simplistic.The Fire Temple of the Paraiso complex in Peru bears a close resemblance to the Vedic 'Havan Kunds' that are a part of Hindu temple arenas. 'Havan Kunds' are fire pits that are used  for performing 'havan' (sacred fire ritual) and making ceremonial offerings to the sacred fire in India. The Paraiso Fire Temple is a larger version of a 'Havan Kund', with seating space for the pundits (priests) chanting mantras.

Pyramid shaped Vedic 'Havan Kund' has been a part of the Indian
tradition since ancient times. Take a look at the fire worship and
listen to the accompanying chants here. 
The Vedic sacred fire ritual ‘havan' serves as a link between man’s consciousness and the cosmic consciousness.The 'havan fire converts the physical components and all offerings made to the fire, into their ‘psychic’ components serving as homage to the deities presiding over the 'havan'. 

In his book 'Pyramid and Temple Vaastu', author Dr. Bhojraj Dwivedi writes, "... when a pyramid shaped temple is inverted, it assumes the shape of a 'havan kund'.... when various articles, fortified by chanting of 'mantras' or Vedic hymns are consigned to the sacrificial fire, the atmosphere gets charged with the multiplied effects of the mantras which spread (pervade) even to the minutest objects." 
Copper 'Havan Kund' shaped like an
inverted Step Pyramid
In fact, the 'offering' made into the fire is known as 'homa' (होम) in Sanskrit. It is probably from the Sanskrit 'homa' that the English word 'homage' is derived - though English etymological dictionaries trace the source to the word 'homme'  meaning 'man'.

All religions worship the higher force in the form of fire, Lighting candles or lamps is common to all religions. In the Vedic tradition, fire or 'agni' is the acceptor of all offerings. 'Agni' is the first word of the Rig Veda. 

The fire therefore is far more significant than a simple smoke signal. The spiritual vibrations emanating from the mantras that are chanted during a 'havan' are very powerful and create positive energy around the person and other participants of 'havan'. 

As for the name 'Paraiso' itself, that too has a Sanskrit source. Dictionaries trace the source of the word 'Paraiso' to Latin 'paradisus', to Greek 'paradeisos' and finally to Avestan 'pari daeza', all  
meaning 'walled enclosure'. However, the source is probably the Sanskrit 'paridhi' (परिधि) meaning 'circumference' or 'walled enclosure'. In Sanskrit, the root word 'pari' (परि) has to do with 'space' - as in 'paryeti' (पर्येति) meaning 'surround', or 'parivapati (परिवपति) meaning 'scatter' and so on.

Was the Paraiso Fire Temple an ancient Vedic Temple? Quite possible, for Peru has many temples that bear names of Sanskrit origin - one example is the KoriKancha. Some symbols such as the Paracas Trident of Lima are uncannily close to the Vedic symbols. The most prominent God is Vira-cocha. The ancient language of the Americas, called the Quechua, seems to have many similarities to Sanskrit! And so do the rivers and ancient place names of Peru. In fact, in Sanskrit, Peru (पेरु) means 'Golden Mountain' and 'paru' (परु) means 'Paradise'. It was in 'Paraiso' Temple Complex that construction workers razed an ancient Pyramid to the ground.

Suggested Links:
1. Rig Vedic Chanting and Havan
2. Greater India
3. Hindu Temple - Paridhi Prakara
4. Ancient Vedic Temple

5. 'Pyramid and Temple Vaastu' by Dr. Bhojraj Dwivedi

Friday, 25 October 2013


Rishi Valmiki writes in the Ramayana that Ravana - or Sri Ravana as he is called in Sri Lanka - was the owner of many aircraft. Of course, the 'Pushpak' is the most famous one and there is a detailed description of the Pushpak in chapter 7 verse 11 of the Sunder Kanda.:

पुष्प आह्वयम् नाम विराजमानम् |
रत्न प्रभाभिः च विवर्धमानम् |
वेश्म उत्तमानाम् अपि च उच्च मानम् |
महा कपिः तत्र महा विमानम् || ५-७-११

"There the great Hanuma saw a great Vimana, the best among best of aerial cars, shining with the name of Pushpaka with the rays of precious stones, and capable of traveling long distances".

Chapter 8, Verse 2 of the Sundar Kanda says:

तदप्रमेयाप्रतिकारकृत्रिमम् |
कृतम् स्वयम् साध्विति विश्वकर्मणाः |
दिवम् गतम् वायुपथप्रतिष्ठितम् |
व्यराजतादित्यपथस्य लक्ष्मिवत् || ५-८-२

"That plane shone like symbol for solar path standing in the aerial path obtaining the sky. Manufactured by Vishvakarma himself and praised by him as one without comparison in beauty."

Another aircraft of the Treta Yuga (the era of Sri Rama), by the name of 'Mayura' is mentioned in the Vaimanika Shastra (aviation scripture) of India. The local legend of Sri Lanka also says that Ravana owned a plane by the name 'Dondu Monara Yantra'. In Singhalese 'Monara' means 'mayura' or 'peacock' and 'Dondu' means 'that which can fly'. Way back in the year 1864 Galle Face Hotel of Colombo chose for its logo, the 'Dondu Monara' - a peacock shaped 'yantra' (machine).

The first flight in modern times, the one that was operated by Wright brothers, did not happen until the year 1903*. It is therefore significant that the Galle Face Hotel had a 'flying machine' as its logo many years before that. The Art of Living publication 'Ramayana in Lanka' says that it is most likely that the 'Monara Dandu' of the Singhaese legends is the same 'Mayura' that is mentioned in the Vaimanika Shastra.

Sri Lankan legend also mentions many airports that existed in Lanka in the Treta Yuga during the times of Sri Rama and Ravana. Here are a few:

1. 'Werangantota' in Mahiyangana - in the Singhalese language this word means 'a place for an airport to land'. In Sanskrit, 'varanka' (वारङ्क) means 'bird' and 'ghatta' (घट्ट) means 'landing place' and is is the source of the word Werangantota. Singhalese itself is a Sanskrit derived language. Legend has it that 'Werangantota' is the airport where the Pushpaka Vimana landed when Sita is abducted and flown to Lanka. The Ashoka Vatika where Sita is held in captivity site is located about 10 km from Werangantota.

A temple stands today at the Ashoka Vatika site
in Sri Lanka, not far from the site of Werangantota ancient airport.

It is also quite evident that Jatayu, the so so-called bird that tries to forestall the flight of Ravana is also an aircraft. How else could a bird battle the Pushpaka vimana and attempt to stop the flight of an aircraft. Of course, the pilot in the aeroplane named Jatayu has been confused for the aircraft itself. One may have noticed that whenever a powerful machinery is mentioned in the Ramayana, Valmiki, the author describes it by saying that the person involved 'changes his shape at will'. For example, every time Hanuman takes off in the air he always transforms his shape. His arms extend out but his legs become comparatively shorter. His chest extends, he presses the ground with his chest, there are huge gusts of wind, there are loud noises and then he is airborne. That's Hanuman in an aircraft!

2. 'Thotupola Kanda' (at Hoton Plains): The word 'thotupola' means a port, a place that one touches during ones journey, 'kanda' means rock. In Sanskrit 'ghattan' (घट्टन) means 'a landing place' and 'katha' (काठ) means 'rock'. The Singhalese word 'Thotu' may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'ghatta'. Thotupola Kanda is a flat land over a rocky range 6000 feet above sea level in Lanka. 'Pola' may be derived from Sanskrit 'pura' meaning city. 'Pura' appears in the name Singapore as 'pore' and as 'por' in Por Bajin (Siberia) etc.

3. Wariyapola (Mattale): The word Wariyapola is said to have been derived from 'watha-ri-ya-pola' meaning place for landing and taking off. The source of 'watha' is the Sanskrit 'vithi' (वीथी) which means 'path', 'atarya' (आतार्य) is related to 'landing', 'tarya' (तार्य) is related to 'carrying freight'. Or 'wariya' may just be a distortion of the sanskrit 'varanga' which as mentioned above means 'bird'. In fact va (वा), vata (वात), vaha (वाह) all are realated to air, flight and flying. 'Pola' is probably a distortion of the Sanskrit 'pura' which means 'place'.

* In India, of course, the story of Wright brothers is no longer accepted. For more on this subject click here.

Suggested Link:
From Bharata to India: Chrysee the Golden by M. K. Aggarwal

Saturday, 19 October 2013


In Chapter 40 of the Kishkinda Kand of the epic Ramayana, the author Sage Valmiki states that the Udaya Adri (उदय अद्रि) ('Udaya' means 'Sunrise' and 'Aadri' means 'Mountain') can be located after crossing many oceans when travelling east of India. In Chapter 40 the 'vanaras' travelling east of India are directed to reach Udaya Mountain - they were to cross Yava (Java), Golden & Silver Islands (Sumatra, Bali etc.), Mt. Shishira, River Shona, Plaksha Island, Ikshu Island, the 'furious' Ikshu Samudra, and then passing the 'disastrous' Lohita Ocean would bring them to Shalmali Dvipa. Shalmali Dvipa has been identified by researchers as the Australian land mass. 

Further they would pass the ocean which has milky waters, Mt. Rishaba and Lake Sudarshana. This seems to be a reference to the mountains and islands around New Zealand.

This is the path that Sugreeva chalks out for the 'vanaras' headed east of India in search of Goddess Sita. Refer to Kishkinda Kand Chapter 40 of the Ramayana.
Further on, the 'vanaras' are told, that they would come across the so called mighty 'Soft Ocean' (Jala Sagaram) whose waves are quite often ferocious. Then Valmiki says the 'vanaras' would pass the 'fantastically refulgent fire resembling the face of a horse' (Verse 4-48). This for sure is a reference to what is today called the 'Pacific Ring of Fire' .

The area encircling the Pacific Ocean is called the 'Ring of Fire,' because its edges mark a circle of high volcanic and seismic activity (earthquakes). Most of the active volcanoes on Earth are located on this circumference.

'The Pacific Ring of Fire' is described in
 Chapter 40, Verse 48 of the Valmiki Ramayana

Once the mighty 'Soft Water Ocean' (which has been identified as the Pacific) has been crossed the 'vanaras' would then reach the Udaya Mountains where they will see Jaat-Shila-Rupa (which translates as Golden Rock Peak), etched on which is a 'golden pylon resembling a palm tree with three branches with a golden podium'. 

Sugreev continues, "That pylon of palm tree is constructed as the easterly compass by celestial gods beyond which lies the Udaya Adri." (Verse 4-52). The Udaya Adri mountains are the Andes of South America. And in the Andes range of Peru is the 'Shining or Golden Trident'. Today it is known as the 'Paracas Trident'. It shines to this day and is visible from the skies.

The 'Shining Trident' beyond which lies the
'Udaya Adri' (Sunrise Mountain) is described in
Chapter 40 Verse 53 of Valmiki Ramayana.
According to the Ramayana, day breaks on earth in the Udaya Adri. In today's world we are conditioned to think that sun rises first in Japan. But the fact is that at every geographical point of land in the world, darkness will fade away and day will break at a certain point of time every day. 

So why did the Ramayana choose the Andes as the point of sunrise, or in other words, why was day-break in Peru over the Andean Mountains chosen as the first ray of sun for the entire earth. Why not India, Japan, or any other place?

Chapter 40 Verse 57 of the Kishkinda Kand gives the reason. It says that when Lord Vishnu first 'invaded' the earth he strode across the earth in three giant steps. "He placed the first step in 'Mt. Saumanasa' which lies in the 'Udaya Adri'." (Chapter 40-58 f Kishkinda Kanda). That point became the point of Sunrise. Where he put his last step was called Mt. Asta (Sunset Mountain). More about Mt. Asta here.. India lies at the middle of Mt. Udaya and Mt. Asta. 

Peru is therefore the land of the rising sun according to the Ramayana. What lay beyond Mt. Udaya Adri and Saumanasa, Valmiki wrote that he knew nothing except that it was there that the celestials frequent. 

Research indicates that Lord Vishnu was revered as Lord Viracocha in ancient America. He carried a 'thunderbolt' in his hand. Interestingly, the word 'Adri' in Sanskrit not only means 'mountain' or 'rock', it also means 'thunderbolt'. Is the word Andes a distortion of the word 'Adri', a reference to Viracocha's 'thunderbolt'. Perhaps our friends in Peru can shed some light.

Is there a temple dedicated to Vishnu's footprint (Vishnu Padam Temple) or Viracocha's footprint in Peru? Are there any similarities to the Vishnu Padam Temples of India and Viracocha's Temples in Peru? Yes, there are. But more about that in a later post.

Monday, 14 October 2013


A photo reproduced from page 78-79 of 'The World of Ancient India' shows that the site where the Humayun Tomb stands today was the site of an ancient Vishnu Temple. The book 'World of Ancient India' is a translation of Dr. Gustave Le Bon's original French work by the name 'Les Monuments de L'Inde' published in Paris in 1893. The English Translation was published by David Macrae, Tudor Publishing Co., (New York) in 1974.

'Vishnu Pada' (विष्णुपद) or 'Vishnu Charan' (विष्णुचरण) temples are significant in context of the legend that Vishnu in the form of Vamana strode across the world and planted his feet at three sites on earth.

Dr. Gustave Le Bon Here is the photograph of the Vishnu footprint slab from Dr. Gustave le Bon's book. The slab had survived at least until 1893 at the Humayun Tomb site. The photograph was captioned in the French version and then translated into English in 'The World of Ancient India' as 'Vishnu's Footprints at Humayun Tomb'.

Vishnu's Footprints photographed at the Humayun Tomb
by Le Bon for his book 'Les Monuments de L'Inde'

Above is the caption from the English version of Le Bon's book
titled  'The World of Ancient India'

There are other indications that the Humayun Tomb was constructed by the Moghuls on the site of an ancient Hindu temple.

Ancient Temple Pillars were used as construction material.
A view of Humayun Tomb's rampart.

Another view of the pillars taken from destructed Hindu Temples
and used for construction of Humayun Tomb. In the background

is a section of a typical Moghul fortress wall at the Isa Khan Tomb
within the Humayun Tomb Complex.

Notice the 'elephant head' engravings at the bottom of the pillar -
a characteristic of Vedic and Hindu art.

A closer view of a less eroded
'elephant head' engraving.

Ancient Temple Pillars were used as construction  material at Humayun Tomb.
Notice that the pillars were placed upside down in this 'canopy structure' 

by the artisans in Moghul times.


The white quartz structure which is a remnant of the ancient temple
is far more eroded than the red-sandstone rectangular structure dating to
Moghul times. Sandstone erodes faster than quartz. The fact that the sandstone piece is in better shape than the quartz structure proves that the quartz pillars

are much older than the sandstone piece.

Eroded engravings on Temple Pillars which were used for construction
of tomb of Isa Khan at the Humayun Tomb Complex indicates that they belong to a different era.