However, some parts of the history can be still be restored by various means and tools. In the context of culture and literature, one such tool is the study of the etymologies of the ancient most names of rivers and mountains of the world. As against the names of towns and cities which often takes the name of any ruler who comes in and takes over charge, the names of mountains and rivers tend to change ever so slowly. These names reveal information about the ancient most times, about the language spoken then, and the relationship of these cultures with nature itself at the time, when these names first emerged. That becomes immensely important especially in areas where the history is completely lost.
Tunisia is one such example. Tunisia was inhabited by Berbers in ancient times before Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC under whose aegis it saw the emergence of the very affluent city of Carthage. Carthage flourished from the 12th century BC to the 2nd century BC when it fell to the Romans after the third Punic War.
The historical study of Carthage is problematic precisely because of the reason mentioned above. The culture and records of Carthage were destroyed by the Romans at the end of the Third Punic War, and hence very few Carthaginian primary historical sources survive. While there are a few ancient translations of Punic texts into Greek and Latin, as well as inscriptions on monuments and buildings discovered in Northwest Africa, the main sources are Greek and Roman historians, who belonged to peoples in competition and hence their accounts of Carthage are extremely hostile.
Nevertheless some information can still be retrieved from the ancient surviving names of rivers and mountains of Tunisia. Take for example the Madjerda river or the Bagrada as it was called in antiquity, the longest river in Tunisia that rises in the Atlas mountains in Algeria and flows through Tunisia and empties into the Gulf of Tunis and Lake Tunis.
The language that the Carthagians spoken was the Punic, also called Canaanite or Phoenicio-Punic which is an extinct variety of the Phoenician family, a Cannanite language of the Semitic family, yet the ancient names of the rivers and mountains of Tunisia can be explained by Sanskrit, a language that is classified as Indo-European.
First the name Madjerda. Jerah, jernah, jardan and its many variations that appear in the names of rivers such as the Niger, or the Jordon, also appears in the name Madjerda. Different cultures have given different etymologies to these names.
Lets first turn west and look at Ptolemy's analysis of the name Niger. In his writings Ptolemy mentioned two rivers in the desert of NIger, one by the name 'Gir' and farther south, the 'Ni-Gir''. Roman historian, Suetonius (69-122 AD) wrote that the name 'gher' originates from the Bereber language, spoken in Morocco, Tunisia and Algeria and means 'watercourse'.
But it is obvious that the word 'gir' is a distortion of the same Sanskrit word that appears in the names of rivers around the word. The word is 'jhara', and appear in the names of many rivers and water bodies around the world such as the 'Jari' which is the northern tributary of the River Amazon, River Jara in Melbourne, the Jara River (a tributary of the Susita River) in Romania, or Lake Jara in New Mexico - not to mention many more in India and Nepal. In Sanskrit the word 'jhara' (झर) means a waterfall or a water body, and 'jhari' (झरी) means a river.
It is evident that the name Madjerda also falls into the same category and is probably also connected to the name Algeria, with jerda and geria as being the variations of the above mentioned 'jhara'. The 'mad' prefix can be explained by the sanskrit 'mada' which means 'intoxicant' and can be attributed to the turbulent flow of the water.
The more ancient name of Madjerda is Bagrada. In the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), William Smith states," Ba' Grada or Ba' Gradas the chief river of the Carthaginian territory (afterwards the Roman province of Africa), had its source, according to Ptolemy, in the mountain called Mampsaurus, in Numidia, and flowed northeast into the Gulf of Carthage."
In the name Bagrada, the suffix 'rada' may be a distortion of 'ruda' which appears in the names of many rivers and is traced to Arabic rud meaning river. In Sanskrit, rudh (रुद्) has to with weep, or flow and is probably also the source of the Arabic 'rud'. 'Bagha' is a appears in Indian river names such as 'Baghirathi' and in names such as 'Chandrabhaga', the ancient name of river Chenab.
Polybius mentions the river under the name of Macaras, which Gesenius considers to be its genuine Punic name, derived from Mokar, also called Melqart or Milkartu, the variation of the name Hercules in Tyrian and Akkadian tradition. Tyre was a the port city of ancient Lebanon.(Monumenta Phoenicia, p. 95).
And because its other names such as Bagrada and Madjerda are easily decoded by Sanskrit, a look at the name Macaras is essential as makk (मक्क) is Sanskrit for 'move' or 'go' and maybe interpreted as 'flow'. Makkara is a sea creature in Hindu mythology and is the vehicle of the river-goddess Ganga, Narmada and the sea-god Varuna.
The modern name Mejerdah furnishes one among many instances, in the geography of North Africa, in which the ancient Punic name Bagradas, corrupted by the Greeks and Romans, has been more or less closely restored in the kindred Arabic. (As stated in Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, illustrated by numerous engravings on wood by William Smith, LLD. London. Walton and Maberly, Upper Gower Street and Ivy Lane, Paternoster Row; John Murray, Albemarle Street. 1854.). However, it is Sanskrit that reveals the real meaning of all these names and above all provides a cultural context and richness to the names.
But why would there be a connection between Punic names and Sanskrit. Here is the story, but first information about Carthage from Wikipedia where it is stated that "the city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC on the coast of Northwest Africa, in what is now Tunisia, as one of a number of Phoenician settlements in the western Mediterranean created to facilitate trade from the city of Tyre on the coast of what is now Lebanon. The name of both the city and the wider republic that grew out of it, Carthage developed into a significant trading empire throughout the Mediterranean. The date from which Carthage can be counted as an independent power cannot exactly be determined, and probably nothing distinguished Carthage from the other Phoenician colonies in Northwest Africa and the Mediterranean during 800–700 BC. By the end of the 7th century BC, Carthage was becoming one of the leading commercial centres of the West Mediterranean region. After a long conflict with the emerging Roman Republic, known as the Punic Wars (264–146 BC), Rome finally destroyed Carthage in 146 BC. "
This is the story of the roots of the Phoenicians and the beginning of their journey from ancient India around the world. In his article titled 'The Panis of the Rig Veda and Script of Mohenjodaro and Easter Island', in the Journal of the Polynesian Society dated January 1938, vol. 3, part 2, the author N. M. Billimoria, on p 92-103 states, "I will give a very short history of the wanderings of the Panis and how they helped in the course of several years to spread such culture as they possessed over a large portion of the then known world.
"The Panis left Sapta-Sindu through sheer necessity. They first settled among the Cholas and Pandyas of Southern India; these aborigines learnt from the Panis the culture and spirit of navigation and trade. From this place they went to the coasts on the Persian Gulf, accompanied by the Cholas; there they settled down for generations; they were in constant communication with South India, became friendly with the aboriginal inhabitants and taught them their principal vocation—trade."
He further adds, "When after ages the colony was invaded by the uncivilized Semites the Panis moved on towards the north and settled on the sea-coast of Syria, which they called Phoenicia, or the land of the Panis or Panikas. This land gave them facilities to trade in the islands of the Greek Archipelago, South Europe, and North Africa. The Panis had several slaves with whose assistance they manufactured articles of trade; they became a prosperous and powerful people; they founded colonies in the islands of the MMediterranean and on the coasts of North Africa. Carthage was a Phoenician colony, and we know what part she played in South and Western Europe. In all the countries where the Panis settled they taught the original inhabitants the arts of civilized life. They traded by sea as far as the coast of Great Britain and ancient France and even Scandinavia, whose aborigines learnt from the Panis the use of metals and the art of agriculture. Thus the Panis or Phoenicians spread Aryan culture not only among the Semitic peoples of Western Asia and Arabia but also among the early pre-historic people of Egypt, North Africa, the Greeks, the Romans, the Iberians, the Celts, and the Gauls of Europe. It is said that the Phoenicians had settlements far up on the northern shores of Norway also, where they spread the worship of their god Baal."
Billimoria traces a brief history of the Panis. He stated that the Semites also, with the help of the Chaldeans who were originally the Cholas of South India, founded the famous kingdoms of Babylonia and Assyria, to which the early European civilization was greatly indebted. The ancient Egyptians, who are considered to be an amalgamation of the Punic race (the Panis), the Pandyas of the Malabar coast of South India, and the aboriginal inhabitants of the land, developed a civilization, which had great influence over European civilization. The Greeks received their culture from the Phoenicians, the Babylonians, and the Egyptians, and imparted it to the Romans, who in turn passed it on to the Iberians, the Celts, the Teutons, and Slavs.
In India, the defeat of the Panis is recorded in the Rig Veda. There are 36 verses in Rig Veda about the Panis, and the ones in Mandala VI refer to their defeat from the nobles who expected veneration from Pani - the traders. For example, Rigveda Book 6, Hymn 22.4 states, "There, Indra, while the light was won, the Paṇis fled, 'neath a hundred blows, for wise Dasoni."
We look at Billimoria's contention whether the Mesopotamian city of Babylon had any Indic links. The first clue comes from the Rig Vedic verses that state that Bribu was king of the Phanis and it is from the name Bribu that Babylon gets its name. Babylon's name occurs as Babili or Babil in the Akkadian texts. According to Vedic estimates Bribu must have lived around 5000BC. The available list of Baylonian kings available today only goes back to 1800 BC.
Babylonian cities include names such as Nippur, Borsippa, Sippar, Mari, Ellasar, Kutha, Sirpuria, Ashur, Nimrud, Ramad, Haradum, Nagar and Urkesh. A look at the names of these cities ancient reveal a Sanskritic link. 'Pur', 'Pura' or Puri' all mean city and are often added as the suffix to the name of any city, 'sara' is the suffix to cities that are located near water-bodies, Rama and Hara are names of Vedic gods, 'Nagar' means town, and 'kesha' is also a suffix to city names in India such as 'Rishikesh'. Nimrud's ancient name was Caleh or Kalakh, perhaps the name can be ultimately derived from Sanskrit 'kalil' (कलिल) meaning 'impenetrable' from which words such as Kila meaning fort are derived. Caleh or Kalakh was a fort city built by Shalmanesar 1 (1274-1245 BCE) an Assyrian king of the Phoenician stock.
When the Pani started trading, the system of payment was barter. But because they travelled, barter was a cumbersome process. Eventually the Panis invented the first metal coin in about 1200 BC. It is therefore from 'pani' that the word 'money' is derived, though etymological dictionaries do not generally accept this derivation of the word 'money'.
The Phoenician God Baala is referred to as Vala in the Rig Veda, whom Indra is supposed to have defeated and killed in the final battle between the Panis and Vedic Hindus. The Phoenicians were astute skills men and traders; and money was their only focus. Though they are known to have been practitioners of child sacrifice, it is generally believed that Phoenician carvings of what appear to be child sacrifice might have been misinterpreted. Current research reveals that the 6000 urns found in Cartharage - one of the Phoenician cities, are urns contain foetuses and bones of still born babies rather than of babies who have been sacrificed. There are no references to any child sacrifice by the Phoenicians or Panis in the Rig Veda either. However, the Hebrew Bible links the name of the Cannanite God Moloch to child sacrifice. The Hebrew Bible states that the Moloch derives from combining the consonants of the Hebrew melech (king) with the vowels of boshet (shame). In the Sanskrit tradition anyone who was not noble was a malecch, and the Vedic Hindus looked upon the Panis as malecchas. That tradition probably may have carried on in the Phoenician society too until the name maleccha emerged as Moleck and became the god of the Panis or Phoenicians.
Syria, another city where the Panis constructed settlements for themselves, mag derive its name either from Sanskrit 'Surya' or sun, or from Sanskrit 'sura' meaning deity. The latter is more likely for in India the nobility or the deities were referred to as 'sura-s', and was a clan and association with it was much aspired for during the early Vedic times.
Another Phoenician city that the Panis developed was Carthage located on the coast of Northwest Africa, in what is now Tunisia. It was created to facilitate trade from the city of Tyre on the coast of Lebanon. Carthage developed into a significant trading empire throughout the Mediterranean. A sarcophagus found in Carthage depicts the hand gesture of a priest in an Indic blessing mudra.
A Sarcophagus of a priest. Carthage 4th century BC
The raised hand is typical blessings gesture of a Hindu priest
indicating a continued link of the Phoenicians
with Vedic India - a land they had been driven away from.
The entrance of the Balbek Temple
is very Indic in design. Elaborate carvings on the
entrance gate edges are commonly seen on Hindu or Vedic temples
Lotus motifs on the ceiling indicate a Vedic Hindu link.
Elaborate lotus carvings are the most common design in
Ancient Vedic temples.
The Phoenicians had continued association with India and this can be inferred from the fact that in the inscriptions, sculpture and carvings of Phoenician cities traces of Indic culture are still found. As far as the dates are concerned, Indian scholars have long argued that the Vedas, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata are way older than western scholars have put forth in their theories. Hence, the Panis who's name appears in Vedas are way older than the rough dating of 2000 BC. Hence it is not surprising that the Panis have left their traces and those of Hindu deities like Indra, Rama and Krishna in ciites that are at least 4000 years old.Here is an artifact from the Phoenician city of Nimrud dated to 900 BCE. Nimrud was known by names such as Kalhu, Caleh and Calah. The city had been built on the location of an earlier Phoenician city under the reign of Shalmaneser I (1274-1245 BCE) but had become dilapidated over the centuries and Ashurbanipal II rebuilt the city later. The Assyrian Empire was ruled from Kalhu from 879-706 BC. Both the names, Assyria and the name of the Assyrian king, Ashurbanipal, derive from the Sanskrit Asura or demons, those who were driven away by the devatas, the deities. In the Vedic tradition all those who were defeated by the devatas were asuras. In this case one must refer to the Vedas which state that the Panis were defeated by Indra devata himself and came to be associated with the name asura.