Saturday, 28 February 2015


In his book 'The Wishing Tree: Presence and Promise Professor Subhash Kak writes, "Over 50 years ago, Roger T. O'Callghan and W.F.Albright published Analecta Orientalia of Rome, a list of 81 names (13 from Mittani 1500-1300 BC), 23 from the Nuzi (an ancient Mesopotamian city), & 45 from the Syrian documents) with Indic etymologies....". 

Here is the list of names Roger Callaghan and W.F. Albright collated which reveal the Indic connection to the names in ancient West Asia. To

1. Abirata - Abhirata (अभिरत) - pleased, contented
2. Aitagama - Etagama, eta (एत) 'antelope', gama (गम) 'to go'-with the gait of an antelope
3. Aitara (the son of Itarā)
4. Artamanyu (Ṛtamanyu, ऋत-मन्यु - revering the divine Law)
5. Ardzawīya (Ārjavīya, आर्जव straight, honest)
6. Bīrasēna (Vīrasena, वीरसेन possessing an army of heroes)

7. Biridāšwa (Bṛhadāsva, possessing great horse-
bradhna ब्रध्न or horse)
8. Bardašwa (Vārddhāśva, the son of Vṛddhāśva)
9. Bāyawa (Vāyava, the son of Vāyu) - Vayu (वायु) 'air'.
10. Bīryašura (Vīryaśūra, the hero of valour - virya (वीर्)- courage)
11. Bīryawādza (Vīryavāja, owning the prize of valour). Again 
virya (वीर्)- courage)
12. Bīryasauma (Vīryasoma, the moon-god of valour)
13. Indarota (Indrota, upheld by Indra)
14. Kalmašūra (Karmaśūra, the hero of action) Kar
ma - action
Purdāya (Purudāya, giving much) - Purdaya (पुरुदय) - full of compassion
16. Ručmanya (Rucimanya, revering light)-  
ruci (रुचि) light
17. Satuara (Satvara,'सत्वर  'swift')
18. Šaimašūra (Kṣemaśūra, the hero of security)
19. Subandu (Subandhu, 'सुबन्धु' being good kinsmen)
20. Sumāla (
having beautiful garlands)
21. Sumīda (Sumīḍha, bountiful)
22. Swardāta (Svardāta, given by heaven)
23. Tsitriyara (Citrya-rai, having distinguished property)
24. Urudīti (Urudīti, having wide splendour)
25. Warasama (Varasama, equal to the best)
26. Wāsasatta (Vāsasāpta, possessing seven dwellings)
27. Wasdāta (Vasudāta, given by the Vasus)
28. Yamiuta (Yamyūta, favoured by Yamin)

Professor Subhash Kak further presents the analysis of Dumont who concluded that the names are Indic and not Iranian mainly because the initial 's' in the names is maintained. That is to say the names that begin with the initial 's' stays with the initial 's' and that it does not change to 'h'. In Iranian, Indic names that begin with 's' change to 'h'. For example 'Sindhu' changes to 'Hindu' in Iranian or Persian. 

Second, most of the names are 'bahuvrithi' or 'tatpurusa'. A bahuvrihi (बहुव्रीहि) compound, literally means 'much rice' but is the equivalent of  'a rich man' is a type of compound that denotes a referent by specifying a certain characteristic that the referent possesses. For example the name 'Viryavaja' that means 'owning the prize of valour' is a bahuvrihi. 

In 'tatpurusa' (तत्पुरुष) compound one component of a word is related to the other component. An example of 'tatpurusa' is the name 'Aitara' which means 'the son of Itara' and shows the 'relationship' between the first and the second.

Names of the 'bahuvrithi' and 'tatapurusha' variety are seen mostly in Sanskrit literature and were prevalent and seen commonly in the ancient Indian tradition rather than in other civilizatons.

Thursday, 19 February 2015


Horos is one of the principal Egyptian deities. He is widely known by his Greek name Horous.The 'Encylopedia of Ancient Deities' lists many more names of Horous which interestingly include the names 'Har' and 'Heru Murti'.

The Egyptian deity Horous, Har or Heru Murti is a falcon god who protects the earth with its wings. Worshipped in different ways and places he is always represented by a falcon or as 'falcon-headed'.

Egyptian deity Horus was also known as
Har or Heru Murti as stated in the
Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities.

The living king in Egypt was always regarded as Horous-incarnate - much as in the Hindu kingdom of Nepal the king was regarded as an incarnate of Vishnu.

The Vedic Lord Vishnu is
also known as 'Hari'.

There are many myths and legends associated with Horos - many of them bearing resemblance to the Puranic legends of Vishnu and Indra.

And the interesting point of course is that in the Indian pantheon 'Hara' is another name for Vishnu. Vishnu's 'vahana' or 'mount' is the eagle or falcon like bird 'garuda' (गरुड़).

Garuda, the eagle like bird,
 is the vehicle
of Hari i.e., Vishnu

It is therefore difficult not to link the legend of Horus with that of Vishnu or Hari. It is also curious Egyptologists hesitate to explore the Vedic customs prevalent in Egypt. The leads to the link between ancient Egypt and Vedic India are obvious, the reasons why mainstream historians choose to ignore them less so. 

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Monday, 9 February 2015


The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India. The earliest references to this Tamil dynasty appear in the Mahabharata though during the times of the British rule in India a belief was spread that the history of Chola dynasty can only be traced to the Ashokan inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE.That erroneous belief has persisted.

But even mainstream historians accept that though the centre of their rule was the Kaveri River, the Cholas ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power extending to South Asia and South-East Asia. The history of the expansion of the Chola empire in the western direction extending to Europe has been systematically obliterated.

Here is a look at the Chola dynasty connection to the name Kuala Lampur in Malaysia, Coromandel (coast) in India, and Cholmondeley in Scotland. 

In the book, 'Ancient Hindu Society' edited by Subodh Kapoor it is stated,"Take the name of Kuala Lumpur. The suffix 'Pur' is a Sanskrit termination used to signify a township. The original Sanskrit was Cholanampuram, i.e. - the City of the Cholas....."

In his book 'World Vedic Heritage', Prof P.N.Oak states, "The 'Coromondal' (coast of east India) is a corruption of 'Chola Mandal Alaya', the Sanskrit term signifying 'Chola Regal Enclave'."

That makes logical sense - for every proper name whether of a person or a city should have a meaning. Coromandale makes no sense in any language be it Malay, any of the Indian languages or European languages - except when interpreted as 'Chola Mandala Alaya'. 

The fact is that only in the ancient Indian literature do the city names have meanings and can be traced to their original roots. This is not true of the majority of the names of ancient European cities, mountains, lakes or rivers. 

It is not surprising that the name Kuala Lampur has its roots in Sanskrit. In its geographic vicinity lies Singapore. Jawahar Lal Nehru had this to say about the name Singapore in his works 'Glimpses of World History - "The greatest of the states was the Sailendra Empire, or the empire of Shri Vijaya, which became the dominant power both on sea and land in the whole of Malaysia by the eighth century. The empire was also a sea power based on trade. Hence you find that it had ports wherever it could get the smallest footing. Indeed a remarkable feature of the settlements of the Sumatrian State was their strategic value - that is to say, they were carefully located at places where they could command the surrounding seas. Often they were in pairs to help each other in maintaining this command. Thus, Singapore, which is a great city now, was originally a settlement of the Sumatran colonists. The name, as you will notice, is a typical Indian name: Singhpur. The Sumatran people had another settlement just opposite the Straits, facing Singhpur. Sometimes they would stretch an iron chain right across the Strait and so stop all ships from passing till they paid heavy tolls".

There are other cities in Malaysia that have Hindu names
. Subodh Kapoor says, "A city in mountainous north Malaysia is called Sungei Pattani. Its ancient Sanskrit name was Shringa Pattan meaning ' a mountain city'. Another town Seramban is 'Shree Ram Van' i.e. 'the bower or forest of Lord Rama'

Now a look at the name Cholomandeley in Scotland which is a family name traced to the House of Cholomandeley. In the local languages the name has no meaning. Cholmondeley was first recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 AD as 'Calmundelei'.

So Prof P.N. Oak's argument that the middle section of Calmundelei' - a cognate of 'mandala' has support from the only European resource that records the history of the name Cholamandeley. 

The fact is that Sanskrit words such as 'kal' or 'durgham' routinely appear in the names of British towns. The suffix in the name of Britain's oldest town called Camulodunon is originally said to have been 'dunum' which means 'fortification' in the ancient Celtic language, similar to the Sanskrit 'durgham' (दुर्गम) meaning 'impassable' or 'inaccessible'. 

It was argued by scholars such as Edward Moor and Edward Pococke that towns in Europe that have the suffix 'burg' are 'fort towns' - 'burg' a distortion of the Sanskrit 'durg' (दुर्ग) meaning 'fort'.

Another striking example is the ancient megalithic site of Callanish in Scotland which it is believed was an ancient observatory. And that is exactly what the interpretation of the name 'Kala-Nisham' will be - 'Kala' (काल) is 'time', 'nisham' (निशम्)  is 'observaion'.

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