Wednesday, 26 June 2013


The River Oxus, also called Amu Darya flows through Afghanistan, Tajakistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. In antiquity, the river was known by its Sanskrit name Vaksu (वक्षु). The name 'vakshu' now survives in the name Vaksh, a tributary of the Amu River. Most encyclopedia only trace the name of the Amu river to its Greek and Latin name Oxus, and generally omit mentioning its Sanskrit name Vakshan (वक्षण) , from which the name 'Oxus' was derived. The reason probably is the fact that not many records about the ancient history of this region and the etymology of the names of its rivers exist except in the ancient Hindu annals, including the Mahabharata and the Puranas. The Vakshu was referred to as the Chakshu in the Mahabharata.

Present day Vakshu River is a tributary of Amu Darya
Amu Darya was known as Vaksh River in antiquity.

In the ancient Indian Vayu Purana, the region between the Amu Darya (Greek name - Oxus River) and the Syr Darya (Greek name - Jaxartes River) was known as Kumuda-dvipa. Just as the name Oxus derives from the Sanskrit Vakshu, the name Jaxartes derives from the Sanskrit name Yakshu (यक्षु). The Avestan texts too refer to the River Jaxartes as Yaksha-arte. Also, the name Kumuda (dvipa) changes from Sanskrit to Komedes in the Greek and Latin texts.

Wednesday, 19 June 2013


When Julius Caesar and the Romans attacked the region that is now known as Belgium, they found this land populated by a Celtic tribe named 'Belgae'. The Romans dubbed their new province Gallia Belgic. When it comes to determining the meaning of the name Belgae, Julius Pokorny (1887 -1970), an Austrian linguist, traced the root word of 'belgae' in Gaulish from Proto Indo European (PIE) which is really concealed Sanskrit. (The region that we now know as Belgium was during the times of Julius Caesar part of the Gaul territory which included France and Luxembourg, and parts of Switzerland, Italy, Netherlands and Germany).

According to Pokorny, the word Belgae stems from PIE (again read Sanskrit!) 'bhelgh-' and 'bhelgh.  In PIE 'Bhelgh-' means to swell up. Some others who disagree with Pokorny say that Belgae stems from the Anglo-Saxon verb, 'belgan', meaning 'to swell up, or to be angry', sometimes also translated as 'swell up with anger'.

Either ways the root word here really is the Sanskrit 'brih' (बृह्) which means 'to increase in size' or 'thicken'. Unlike Sanskrit, PIE is a reconstructed language which has been engineered from various ancient languages. It is Sanskrit therefore rather than PIE which is a powerful instrument in decoding all ancient texts and inscriptions found around the world.

Those who have argued that the Anglo Saxon 'belgen' means both 'swell up and angry' must know that in Sanskrit 'brih' (बृह्) means to 'swell up', and 'bhurni' (भूर्णि) means 'angry'. The Anglo Saxon 'belgen' is really an amalgamation of these two distinct Sanskrit root words.

The now extinct Gaulish and Celtic languages which the ancestors of the Belgae tribes spoke have a remarkable similarity to Sanskrit. For example in Gaulish the word 'bel' means 'white'. Some scholars have put forth the view that the name 'Belgae' itself is derived from 'bel'. What is of interest is the in Sanskrit too the word 'balaksh' (बलक्ष) means 'white'.

Another example is the Gaulish word 'karnito' There is a famous Umbrian* Gaulish inscription: 'Ateknati Trutikni karnitu artuaś Koisis Trutiknos'. This has been translated as 'Koisis son of Drutos, has built the tomb of Ategnatos son of Drutos'. However, the translation is not accepted as perfect.

But what is accepted is that the word 'Karnitu' in the inscription means 'to do'. It is also accepted that it stems from the Sanskrit 'karoti' (करोति), the root word being 'Kr' (कृ). Similarly the word 'Trutikni' translated as 'Son of Truit or Druit' may not be that at all. 'Truit-kni' may have more to do with the Sanskrit word 'Putra' which means 'son', and so on.

The word 'Karnitu' appears in another Gaulish inscription: 'Pelkui pruiam teu karite, isos kalite palam'
Here too the word 'karite' is translated as 'do'. 'Teu' is also originates from Sanskrit 'dev' meaning 'god'. 

The other words in the inscription may also be distortions of Sanskrit words. For example: 'Palam' may be a distortion of Sanskrit 'phalam' meaning 'reward'. 'Pelkui' may be linked to 'palukshi' means 'fire', 'pruiam' to 'parma' which means 'highest', 'kalite' to Sanskrit 'kalita' which most often means 'made' but also 'separated' and so on.

Celtic Inscriptions
*It is interesting that the Umbria, which was a part of the Gaul territory is said to gets its name from the name of a tribe called 'Ombri' - its meaning is 'people of thunderstorm'. In Sanskrit and Sanskrit derived languages the word 'Ambar' (अम्बर) means 'sky', 'ambuda' (अम्बुद) means 'cloud' and 'abhriya' (अभ्रिय) means 'thunder'.

Here is a link to a Gaulish-English Glossary. Where ever the source word is mentioned as Indo-European (IE), you will find the word in a Sanskrit dictionary. 

Suggested Links:

Saturday, 15 June 2013


Merv was a major oasis-city in Central Asia located on the historical Silk Route, near today's city of Mary in Turkmenistan. In ancient Persian texts (that is Avestan texts), Merv is mentioned as Mouru , which is a distortion of the Sanskrit Meru (मेरु), the original name of the first city built on this site. The remnants of the most ancient sacred site of Merv still exist at 'Gonur Tepe'. To read more about the Sanskrit-Vedic connection to 'Gonur Tepe', click here.

An Indus Valley like seal of an elephant
found at Gonur-Tepe, Turkmenistan 

Another ancient city on the Silk Route was Nishapur (निशापुर)  which is located in present day Iran. It was established in 3rd century AD by the Sassian King Shapur, who was the son of King Ardashir. In Sanskrit 'Ardasi' (अर्धासि) means a 'dagger'. Probably his name derived from a given name like 'the sworded one'. Shapur's father's name was Sassan who was married to a lady by the name 'Ram Behest' (राम विहस्त) meaning 'completely absorbed in the thought of Ram'. She was the daughter of the chief of a tribe named 'Bazrangi', an obvious distortion of the Sanskrit  word 'Vajrangi' (वज्रङ्गी), which is another name for the vanara-god Hanuman.

Nishapur flourished up until 1221 AD, when Genghis Khan's vicious daughter, in vengeance after her husband was killed in Nishapur, had the city destroyed. She ordered  the death of all 1.7 million people living  there. It is said that the skulls of all men, women and children were piled up in pyramids. The massacre of Nishapur is regarded as one of the bloodiest war-crimes in the history of the world.

Nishapur, which means 'Dark City' in Sanskrit, must have indeed got this name after the massacre. The city was founded by King Shapur and was probably called by the name Shapur, before it turned into Nishapur after the massacre.

A Zoroastrian Lamp found in Nishapur, Iran
Zoroastrianism has a lot in common with the Vedic religions-
especially fire worship

Replica of an artifact found in Nishapur
Notice the Devanagric script
Suggested Site

1.History of Turkmenistan
2. Encyclopaedia Iranica
3. Nishapur Massacre
4. Asiatic Researches

Thursday, 13 June 2013


In the region west of India including Afghanistan and Turkey there are many ancient sites which have names that end with the word 'tepe'. Though the most well known of these is Goebekli Tepe in Turkey (discussed in an earlier blog here), an equally important 4000 year old site, by the name 'Gonur Tepe', was discovered near Merv (ancient name Meru) in Turkmenistan. Read more about ancient Merv here.

Mainstream archaeologists describe Gonur Tepe  as an Indo-Iranian sacred site where religious austerities were performed. It comprises of two temple complexes - one dedicated to fire, the other to water. The two temple complexes are aligned with the cardinal North direction. The artefact and traces found at the site reveal that the site was used for fire-worship and preparation of what is known as 'hoama' in Zoroastrian texts. 

It is generally believed that the name 'Hoama' may be the distorted version of the Sanskrit 'Soma' (सोम). 'Soma', as described in the Vedas, is translated as 'nectar of the gods' and is regarded as a 'heavenly elixir'. But a study of Ayurveda reveals that Soma is a medicinal preparation used for the detoxification of the body. 

The use of Soma is complex and its administration is to be done in a precise manner which is detailed in the Ayurveda. (For more details on the tedious process of  preparing 'soama' and requirements of the Vastu Shastra of the buildings where 'soama' can be administered, click here. To know more about the ancient 70-day 'Ayurvedic body detoxification process' click here).

However, the name 'Hoama' may not be a distortion at all. In the Vedic tradition of India, 'Homam' is a fire ritual of sacrifice. It is also known as homa or 'havan' or 'yajna' (yagya) or 'yajana'. Whether the site was used for preparation of 'soma' (सोम) or whether it was used for offering 'homa' (होम), Gonur Tepe is a Vedic site.

Gonur Tepe, Turkmenistan, Photo Courtesy: Kenneth

Mainstream historians have concluded that the Gonur Tepe citizens lead a very complex religious life. Apart from that they have not yet  been able to throw much light on what the site was used for.

What about the origins of the name Gonur Tepe? The name is generally translated in Turkmenistan as 'Brown Hill'. Two Sanskrit words that are close cognates are 'tupa' (तूप) or 'mound' and 'tapa' (तप) or 'penance' or 'austerity'.

Since places of meditation are always in remote places, mostly hills and mountains, the word 'tapa' (तप्) is often equated with 'hills'. In India too most sages practised their 'tapa' (penance) on hills and mountains therefore 'tapa' is linked with mountains, but 'tapa' simply means a place for meditation or penance or austerity and not 'hill'. 'Gonur Tepe' is not located on a hill either, it is located in a desert.

In the Sanskrit-Vedic tradition, the word 'tapa' (तप्) is related to 'meditation', 'austerity', 'warmth', 'sun', 'heat', 'concentration', 'illumination', 'enlightenment', 'concentration', 'glow', 'fire' , 'religious austerity', 'refinement', 'scientific testing by fire', etc. In fact the word 'tapa' (तप) entails the combined meaning all the words listed above.

The Vedic sages were engaged in 'tapa', the scholars of ancient India were engaged in 'tapa', in fact the 'gods' and 'devas' were all engaged in 'tapa'. Fire was, and is, considered sacred in the Vedic Dharma also known as Sanatana Dharma (today called Hinduism). An austerity performed was always done in front of a 'fire' and was known as a 'yagya'.

A 'fire yagya' in present day India 
Gonur Tepe in Turkmenistan was
also the site for fire worship. The
offerings made to fire are known
as 'homa' in Vedic tradition.

Scholars such as Gene Matlock have linked the word 'tepe' to the Sanskrit 'tupa' (तूप) meaning 'mound', hepa or 'pile' or 'stupa' (स्तूप) which means a 'rounded structure'. It was later that the word 'stupa' was associated with the Buddhist 'stupa' structures.

As for the word 'Gonur', in the Sanskrit tradition it may be linked with 'guna' (गुण) meaning qualities. All beings have three qualities or 'guna' – satwa (सत्व), rajas (राजस) and 'tamas' (तामस ). Satwa is the quality of purity, benevolence and knowledge; rajas is action, bravery and result oriented actions; tamas is laziness and inertia. We must make an effort, that is do 'tapas', to overcome 'rajas' and' tamas' and increase the 'satwa' quality. This is known as ' tapoguna' which means a quality obtained by performing penance. 

The fact that 'Soma' preparation urns have survived in this  4000 year old Temple Complex at Gonur Tepe indicates that it may have once been a site for performing the Ayurvedic 'Tapa-Guna' Yagya type of ceremonies. Administration of  'Soma' is a part of the 'Tapa-Guna' process.

An artist's impression of a 'Soma'-Preparation chamber as explained in the Ayurveda: 

Soma Rasa Administration Chamber as described in the Ayurveda.
The Chambers must face north. The two temples of
Gonur Tepe too face North.
Ancient 'soma urns found at the 4000 year
old site at Gonur Tepe in Turkmenistan
The real meaning and function of these Indic-Vedic sites anywhere in the world cannot be understood without the aid of either Sanskrit or the Vedic texts.

Saturday, 8 June 2013


The name 'Britain' originates from the word Briton, which comes from the Latin 'Brittonem'. The 'Britt' was the endonym of the Celtics, that is the people who we know as Celtics, called themselves 'Britts'.

The Greek chronicles record the name of the 'Britts' as 'Pritt-anoi', the letter 'b' here interchanges with 'p'. This is common with all dialects as languages change over a period of time (with the sole exception of Sanskrit which maintains its mathematical precision and allows no changes).

Prince Cassivellaunus (54 BC) was a contemporary of Julius Caesar. His territory lay to the north and north east of the river Thames in Britain. He was a Phoenician who had succeeded in colonizing this territory. And he bore the name Prat Cassi Vellaunus. The name 'Prat', a distortion of the word 'Barat', was the name of his forefather. Cassi was the name of his tribe. Vellaunus was his given name.

Austine Waddell (1854-1938), Professor of Chemistry and Pathology and a Sumerologist, wrote in his book 'The Phoenician Origin of Britons Scots and Anglo Saxons' that 'The title Prat is clearly a dialectic form of the patronymic title "Barat" (Sanskrit: भरतः)  used by the Aryan Phoenicians as recorded in the Indian epics and in the Vedic Hymns....the Phoenicians being, as we have seen, a chief branch of the Barats, or the descendants of King Barat, and they are systematically called "Barat" in the Indian epics and Vedas. And this Aryan Phoenician title of "Barat" or "Brihat" is now disclosed to be the Phoenician source of our modern titles "Brit-on," "Brit-ain," and "Brit-ish.".

Waddell quotes from the Mahabharata, Chapter 94, Verse 3704, "And King Barat gave his name to the Dynastic Race of which he was the founder; and so it is from him that the fame of that Dynastic People, hath spread so wide."- Maha Barata. It implies that the story of Bharat which began during the time of the Ramayana, was taken forward by his descendants and by the time of the Mahabharata, Bharat's descendants had spread their rule to different parts of the world. .

Austine Waddell traces the origin of the words Britain, Britannia and Briton to 'Bharat' in detail here and here.

Wednesday, 5 June 2013


Every major project in the Ramayana begins with an Ashvamedha Yagya. A 'yagya' may be interpreted in the sense of a 'ritual' or in a more scientific sense, as the preparation for the 'launch of a mission'. The story of the birth of Sri Rama and his brothers also begins with an Asvamedha Yagya.

Before the story moves to Ayodhya other events  take place. The celestials discuss the menace that Ravana, the ruler of Lanka has become for the sages on earth. The celestials and Ravana had earlier signed a treaty whereby they had assured Ravana that no harm would come to him from the celestials. However, with Ravana growing in power, and becoming an increasing threat, they decide on a  strategy to eliminate Ravana without breaking the promise made in the agreement.

The celestials decide that an 'avatar' of Indra  will be born to Dasharath of  Ayodhya, the mightiest of the rulers on earth. It just so happens (or it is planned this way) that Dasharath is performing 'Putrakamesti' ritual as he desires to have a son. 

During the 'Putrakameshti' ritual someone arrives in a 'blazing form' (most likely a spacecraft), from the land of the celestials. He introduces himself as the messenger of Prajapati, he is dressed in black and red, he is very tall, his hair is like that of a lion's mane and he is carrying a 'divine vessel'  which he hands over to Dasharatha so that he can 'give' it to the ones who are 'eligible'. Here is the actual verse:

इदम् तु नृप शार्दूल पायसम् देव निर्मितम् |
प्रजा करम् गृहाण त्वम् धन्यम् आरोग्य वर्धनम् || १-१६-१९

'Oh, tigerly king, take this dessert prepared by divinities, this is a blessed dessert, that enriches progeny and health'. [1-16-19]

भार्याणाम् अनुरूपाणाम् अश्नीत इति प्रयच्छ वै |
तासु त्वम् लप्स्यसे पुत्रान् यदर्थम् यजसे नृप || १-१६-२०

'Oh, king, let this be 'consumed'... the childbearing will be fructified in your wives by bearing sons, hence give this among your eligible wives', so said the Divine Being to Dasharatha. [1-16-20]

Here is the interpretation. It is the dessert (seed) that is 'divine'. The 'receiver of the seed' is not its equal. The receiver has to be 'eligible' for the divine 'seed'. In other words, the divine vessel carries the genetic material to complete the 'Putrakameshti yagya' which is really 'the steps required for completion of the birth process'. What follows in time, is the birth of the four brothers, Rama, Bharat, Lakshmana and Shatrugna.

But before Sri Rama's birth, other beings were also genetically engineered and brought to life. The Ramayan says that the presiding god or organizer Bramha, dictates that a new race called the 'vanaras', 'that looks like monkeys, but are not monkeys', be procreated. 

Bramha instructs the team to take the genes from prominent 'apsaras' and 'gandharvas', from the girls of 'yakshas' and 'pannagas', and also from the bodies of 'kinnaraas', 'she-vidyaadharaas', 'she-rikshas' and 'she-monkeys'. The Ramayana says that this was done to ensure that the 'vanaras' would be wizards of miracles, so that they could travel through the air, would be  bestowed with intellect, and could be untiring in their efforts. (Ramayana, Balaknada, Section 17, Verses 3-6.)

The genetic material is taken from many sources,only the outer form or shape of the 'vanaras' is like that of the monkey.

ते तथा उक्ताः भगवता तत् प्रति श्रुत्य शासनम् |
जनयामासुः एवम् ते पुत्रान् वानर रूपिणः || १-१७-८

When Brahma addressed them thus, those gods have agreed to his order and accordingly started to parent sons in the semblance (vanara rupin) of monkeys. [1-17-8]

This pedigree that is created is given the label of  'vanaras'. They are look-alike of monkeys but are not monkeys. They are 'vaana ruupiNam' meaning 'resembling monkeys' and are developed from genetic material taken from apasara, gandharvas, yakshas etc. The 'vanara', just like 'homo sapiens' only look like monkeys, but are not monkeys.

There are many instances of genetic alterations in the Ramayana, before the birth of Sri Rama. Instances are seen in Mahabharata too, for example - the birth of the 100 Kaurava brothers etc.

Saturday, 1 June 2013


In the Kishkinda Kand of Ramayana, Sage Valmiki describes a 'wormhole' which is located in a cave in the Vindhya range in central India. Valmiki calls it the 'black cave'. In an incident the 'vanara commandos', including Hanuman and Angada, rapidly fall and traverse through this 'wormhole' and arrive on the southern tip near an ocean south of which is located Lanka. To read more about what a wormhole means, click here. Skeptics must note that Albert Einstien considered the possibility of using wormholes as potential roadways for time and space travel. 

The verses of the Ramayana say that the 'vanaras', who are scouring the forests of Vindhya range near Kishkinda (which is from where Sugreeva the vanara-commando chief runs his kingdom), are attracted to a certain 'black cave' when they see what Valmiki describes as 'swans'. The 'swans' are dripping with water and there seem to be fruit trees around. The 'vanaras' are hungry and thirsty and are looking for refuge since their hunt for the abducted Sita had not borne any fruit till then. Also, the one-month time limit that had been granted to them by Sugreeva was fast running out.

Approaching what they think is a cave where they might find water, they fall through a dark tunnel. In there they see a number of 'lions' traversing at great speed through this dark tunnel. The speed of these flying 'lions' seemed to be unaffected by darkness in the cave or the tunnel but more like a 'wormhole'. 

What might these flying 'lions' have been? In verse 5 of Section 51 of Kishkinda Kanda Hanumana says, "The edibles, tubers, and fruits are all pure... golden are the aircrafts... mansions silvern... ventilators golden and encased in jewellery laces...". The 'jewellery laces' seem to be a description of a string or spray of lights through the darkness of the tunnel.

A present day depiction of a 'Wormhole'
that can transport one over long distances in a short time by bending space.

When the 'vanaras' reach a spot where there is light, they see many golden and silver (metal) vehicles, which have seats embellished with jewels (in other words they are sleek). They also see trees with flaming fire, elegant dwellings with nets of pearls, and finally a lady in a dark deer-skin attire (catsuit). The lady in the deer-skin suit introduces herself as 'Swayamprabha', in-charge of the dark yet golden tunnel, which she informs was designed by the celestial architect Maya for the 'Danavas'. Maya crafted this cave as a 'heaven on earth', for which the infuriated Indra later eliminated Maya. 

To cut a long story short, Swayam-prabha allows the tired 'vanaras' to freshen up and feed themselves, and then on the request of Hanuman transports the bewildered 'vanaras' out of the cave. They are transported out of the cave in an instant, but not before Swayamprabha tells the 'vanaras' to cover their eyes - a require-ment for this instant transportation. Swayam-prabha also tells Hanuman that there was no
other way out of the cave but through her 'ascetic' powers.

The 'vanaras' including Hanuman and Angada find
themselves out side of the cave but they are now close to an Ocean located south of the Vindyas and not the same spot from where they had entered. Swayam-prabha transported them to the southerly side of the cavity, avoiding other directions. 

The 'vanaras' find themselves near an Ocean on the other side of which was located Lanka, though the vanaras did not yet know that Sita was being held captive in Lanka. And it is therefore evident that Swayamprabha  had intentionally transported the 'vanaras' close to Lanka.

The 'vanaras' spend some time near the Ocean but in their despair of having failed the mission decide to go back into the cave because they are convinced that such was the magical and ascetic power of Swayamprabha that they would be safe in her cave.

However Hanumana is not in favour of using the cave as a hideout, the vanaras dejected though they are, wait it out and events take place in the form of the arrival of Sampaati, a giant 'bird', who had seen the abduction of Sita by Ravana and the information that she is accross the ocean in lanka.

Valmiki writes that the 'vanaras' stay close to the cave for one full month where they devise their future course of action with the help of Sampati, a vulture, who had in the past flown in what can only be called 'combats' and 'aerial duals' along with his brother, the now dead, Jatayu. At the end of one month Hanuman finally decides that he is ready to enter the city of Lanka on his own. Incidentally, the description of Lanka that Hanuman relates and Valmiki writes in the Sundarkand section of Ramayana boggles the mind.

Back to the 'wormhole' story. The question is do we have any idea where that wormhole of the ancient Vindyas was located. 

The information that follows is from a report in the Rajasthan Times of 2010.  It is said that a group of anthro-pologists, lead by archaeologist Mohammed Wasim Khan of the Archeological Environment Research and Tribal Welfare Society, working with hill tribes in Hoshangabad, earlier known as Narmadapura in Madhya Pradesh made a startling discovery. They found caves hidden in a deep jungle in Raisin. In one of the caves was found an amazing ancient painting.The painting shows a man or a woman in a catsuit, a UFO like flying object, and a cylindrical spring like shape. One can only wonder whether the painting depicts the scene from Ramayana which includes Swayamprabha in a cat suit, flying vehicles and a wormhole.

Indian Cave Painting of Aliens and UFOs
The ancient painting found in the
Hoshangabad caves of Madhya Pradesh.
Is this a representation of somebody like 'Swayamprabha' 
and the wormhole of Valmiki Ramayana?
This ancient painting, personally seen by Mr. Wassim Khan, is authentic. So is the information about the wormhole in the Ramayana absolutely authentic. To go to the source of information refer to Valmiki Ramayana, Kishkindakand Section, Section 51 - 'The Legend of Black Cave'. Section 50 and 51. 

Since then some more ancient paintings of a higher species of super-humans, much like the aliens now depicted in movies, have also emerged in Chattisgarh. The Archaeological Survey has announced that they will take the help of Indian Scientific Research Organization to study these paintings which are estimated to be 10,000 years old. Here is a link to a report in the Times of India.

This ancient painting reportedly about 10,000 years old, from a Chattisgarh Cave in India, depicts large headed human like species with weapons in their hands.

Another Chattisgarh cave ancient painting depicts a fan-like antenna and three legs of a vehicle which show a similarity to UFO type craft.

This ancient Chattisgarh painting suggest that humans in prehistoric times may have seen beings from other planets