Monday, 29 October 2012


The Mitanni Empire (1500-1300 BC) was a loosely organized Hurrian speaking state in what is today the northern part of Syria and South East Turkey. During the Amarna Period, around 1350 BC, Mitanni was a major international power.

By about 1480 BC Mitanni had been unified under Parrattarna, the Hurrian overlord of king Idrimi. The name Parattarna means 'Superior Sun' or 'Great Sun' in Sanskrit [Para (पर) meaning ''superior' or 'great'. Tarna or Tarni (तर्णि) meaning Sun].

Tarna (तरण) means 'heaven' or 'crossing over' in Sanskrit and points to 'crossing over to heaven' or attaining moksha. Nevertheless, the word 'tarna' emerges repeatedly in the names of Mittani royalty. names include Shuttarna (शत-तरण), Parratarna (पर-तरण) and Artatarna (अर्थ-तरण).

The word 'ratha' (रथ) meaning chariot also occurs repeatedly, example - Tushratta and Chittaratta, akin to the Dasharatha of Ramayana. Or the name 'ratta' may be used in the sense 
of  रत, which means joyful. Tusha and Chitta mean 'splendid' and 'mind or thought'.

The Vedic Gods such as Mitra, Varuna and Indra were also invoked in many of the treaties that the Mittani signed with other kingdoms.

Egyptian sources refer to the Mittani as Egyptian 'nhrn', the Assyro-Akkadian word for 'river'. 'Nhrn' itself may have had Sanskrit roots either in 'nira' (नीर) that is 'water' or 'nihar (नीहार), which means 'heavy dew', 'snow', 'fog', or 'mist'.

Indian scholars have long argued that  there was a major Vedic influence on Egypt. Here is a photograph from the book 'Egyptian Myths and Legends' which has caught the attention of some Indologists. The attire is akin to what was the dress code of ancient Indians and the person seems to be wearing a Vedic Tilak - though that cannot be verified.

Suggested Links: 1. Indo European Sanskrit Decipherment of the Indus Valley Script
                           2. A Thousand Miles up the Nile

Friday, 26 October 2012


As per Sumerian mythology, the Annunaki were a pantheon of good and evil gods. The word Annunaki translates from Sumerian as 'those who came from the sky' or 'those who came from heaven'.

There are theories today that say that the Annunaki were highly advanced extra-terrestrials who visited the earth many thousands of years back.

What might the word 'Annunaki' mean in Sanskrit. 'Anu' (अणु) has many meanings including 'atom', 'atomic', 'minute', 'soul', 'matter', 'life' and 'sacred text'. 'Nakin' (नाकिन्) means 'god' or 'the one who possesses heaven'. Naka (नाक) means 'heaven', 'sky' or 'sun'.

The word 'Annunaki' would then translate as 'Life from Heaven'. Whether the Annunaki are mythological Gods or extra terrestrials is difficult to say, but the translation of word Annunaki in both Sumerian and Sanskrit suggest that they were people who either came from another world or from another dimension.

Saturday, 20 October 2012


The 7000 ft high Mt. Nemrut in Turkey, is today a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Historically, it was the location of King Antiochus's temple sanctuary, which he constructed in 62 BC. Today it remains a large but little visited necropolis on Turkey's tourism map.

Mount Nemrut lies south of Malatya (ancient name, Milidia), and 40 km north of Kahta and Adiyaman in Turkey. Malatya has been identified as 'Melid', an ancient city on the Tohma River, a tributary of the upper Eupharates rising in the Taurus mountains. The name Melid and Milidia is described in Hittite texts which mention that etymologically this area was named 'melid' which meant 'honey' in the language of the Hittites. That there is a close association between 'Melid' and the Sanskrit 'madhul' (मधूल) meaning 'honey' is of course obvious.

Nearby was the town of Adiyaman. Adi (आदि) translates from Sanskrit as 'the beginning' or 'commencement'. 'Yaman' (यामन्) translates as 'the approach to God'.

King Antiochus wanted to see his name and that of his  dynasty preserved. His tomb was built in order for his vassals to worship him after his death. A Greek inscription reveals that he was buried at Nemrut in the temple sanctuary surrounded by colossal statues of Gods, as a sign of his parity with the Gods. The fact that the mountain is named Nemrut (नमृत) which means 'not dead' or 'alive' in Sanskrit is therefore not surprising.

King Antiochus' original name was Mithridate; he assumed the name Antiochus when he ascended the throne. The word Mitra (मित्र) means 'friend' or 'ally'. 'Datta' (दत्त), meaning 'giver' or 'the honoured one', and often kings in India would add 'datta' to their names as an achievement epithet.

There are interesting references to King Antiochus in the Sanskrit inscriptions of ancient sites in India. The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Miscellany, Volume 27, 1838, in the chapter named 'Important Historical Discoveries in the Inscriptions of India', page 208, mentions Sanskrit shlokas (verses) about King Antiochus. The shlokas were found in the ancient rock inscriptions of Girnar in Gujarat, and, in the rock inscriptions of Dhauli, in Cuttack in Orissa (now Odisha) state of India.

Here is a translation from an ancient edict of Emperor Ashoka of India which makes a passing reference to King Antiochus. Of course the verse is about the glory of Emperor Ashoka and his fame around the world and the knowledge emanating from India being passed around to other civilizations, but it mentions King Antiochus nevertheless. Here it is:

"Everywhere withing the conquired provinces of Raja Priyadarshi (Ashoka), the beloved of the Gods, as well as in parts occupied by the faithful, such as the Cholas, ....the Ketalputras, or even as far as Tambapanni (Sri Lanka) ..... and moreover, the dominion of Antiochus the Greek, everywhere, the Heaven-Beloved, Raja Priyadarshi's double system of Medical Aid is established....".

Check King Antiochus in Emperor Ashok's Edicts for the original verses.

Monday, 8 October 2012


The 'tepui' are the table-top mountains of the Guiana Highlands of Venezuela, South America. In the ancient Native tongue of the Pemon, the indigenous people who inhabited the Grana Sabana region of Venezuela, the word 'tepui' means 'house of the gods'.

In Sanskrit, the root word 'tap' (तप्) means austerity, penance and is often used in reference to the sacred sites, such as the many 'Tapovans' (तपोवन) in the Himalayan mountain range. Tapovan is a combination of the Sanskrit root word 'tap' (तप्) meaning 'sacred, penance, meditation etc' and 'vana' (वन) meaning 'forest'. In the ancient times, and this is true of India even today, sages and rishis retire to the hills and mountains for 'tap' (meditation).

Cognates of the Sanskrit 'tap' appear in names of many ancient holy hills and mountain names in South America especially in Mexico. Some of these are Tepatit·n, Tuxtepec, Tepec, Tepic, Mazatepec, Tepetatas, Tepantita, Tepetzintla, Tepuste, Tepetlix and Tepetlalco. (These names are from the research done by Gene Matlock). Even in Turkey, in the name Goebekli Tepe, one of the most ancient sites in the world, the word Tepe makes an appearance.

In Sanskrit any sacred place including hills are known as Tapod (तपोद). In ancient India, the hills 
of Himalayas were the centres of 'tap' or 'tapasya', that is sacred meditation. 
Scholars such as Gene Matlock have linked the word 'tepe' to the sanskrit 'stupa' (स्तूप) which means a 'heap' or a 'pile' or a 'mound'. It was later that the word 'stupa' was associated with the Buddhist 'stupa' structures. In some Sanskrit derived languages distortions caused the dropping of the first syllable 's'.

One of the largest known Tepui in Venezuela is the 'Auyantepuis'. It has an area of about 700 square kms. In Sanskrit the word Aunantaya (औन्नत्य) means 'height' or 'elevation'.

There is another tepuis by the name of 'Sari-sarinama' famous for its water cascades and water sinkholes. In Sanskrit the word 
'Sara' (सर) means a 'spring', it also means 'fluid', 'waterfall', and 'cascade of water'. Incidentally, the word 'sara' also makes an appearance in the name of the water-springs town of 'Saratoga' in New York, USA.

Whether the ancient inhabitants of the Gran Sabana area in Venezuela had any links to Asia and Sanskrit is difficult to say, but there are many more ancient place names such as Tepuis Neblina, {Sanskrit Nabha 
(नभ) - meaning 'sky'} or Tepuis Autana, {Sanskrit Audana (ओदन) meaning 'cloud'} which points to the fact that maybe there was a link between the ancient peoples of India and Venezuela which researchers today may find  worth exploring.

Saturday, 6 October 2012


Arkaim is an ancient archaeological site located south of the Urals on the Kazagisthan border in Russia and is dated by different archaeologists to approximately between 2200 and 1650 B.C. It has often been described as 'Swastika city' or 'Mandala city' owing to its design, though there are many who say that referring to the site by these names is stretching our imaginations too far. 

However, what is established is that Arkaim was not only a settlement, but it was also a temple, and an astronomic observatory! Some have contended that "Arkaim' was a weapon-storage facility. The ruins of the site have revealed that it was round with a diameter of 160 meters. The four entrance gates to the structure or temple coincide with the four cardinal directions.

The etymology of the name of 'Arkaim' is unclear. It is also unclear whether there the site was a 'sun' temple. Nevertheless, a look at the word 'Arkaim' through the Sanskrit lens is interesting.

In the ancient Megalithic sites of South America, the name 'Arka' occurs many times. The two most prominent ones are:

1. The Araqhama Sun Temple and Manya-Araki Temple Plaza in Peru.
2. The Arkapana Pyramid of Bolivia.

Existence of Sun temples at these sites is well known.

The word 'Arka' (आर्क) means 'Sun' in Sanskrit. 'Arka' (अर्क) has many other meanings including 'fire', 'religious ceremony', 'sun beam' and 'copper'. 
'Arkin' (अर्किन्) and 'archin' (अर्चिन्) mean 'radiant with light'. This is not surprising as initial archaeological research has revealed that Arkaim was a site for religious ceremonies and probably also served as a Sun-Temple.

Nearby, are the remains of the even older 'Sintashta' archaeological site, a settlement dated to 2800–1600 BC and named after the river by the same name. The name for river 'Sintashta' may have been derived from the Sanskrit 'Shinta' (शीन्त) meaning 'cool', probably a description of the waters of the River Sintashta!

Thursday, 4 October 2012


In 1984 a large cache of over 300 artifacts was discovered in the jungle-covered mountains of La Maná, Ecuador.

It is said that the place name 'Mana' itself is a remnant of the ancient Sanskrit speaking inhabitants of La Mana. 'Mana' (मन) of course means 'mind', 'opinion' or 'belief' in Sanskrit as it does in common spoken Hindi.

The artifacts found at La Mana include representations of the Pyramids similar to those of Egypt, Cobra (a snake local only to South East Asia) and representations of the globe as it was before huge chunks of land were submerged post the melting of the ice after the end of the last ice age.

A ruined 'manadala' shaped structure was also found close to the La Mana site. Inscriptions in an ancient script were also found near this site. When the script was decoded, here is what it said:

Su-ta ma ti kara as!  

This was identified by German linguist Kurt Schildmann as Pre-Sanskrit and according to him 'su-ta ma ti kara as' meant "The son/daughter of my creator moves from outside into....". Though the language has been called Pre-Sanskrit, the words have been directly taken from Sanskrit:

Suta ( सूत ) Child or Son
Ma (मा) Build or Create
Kara (कार) act, action, make
Chara (चर) moving

However, this is a very contrived interpretation of Sanskrit, almost forcing to bring in a 'Son of Creator' angle into the translation!! 

Lets look at what these words might really mean in Sanskrit: Sutamam Ati Akara As!

Sutamam (सुतमाम्) most excellent
Ati (अति) extremely
Aakar (आकार) shape, configuration
Aas or As (आस्) to be

This is would pretty closely translate from Sanskrit as "This is an most excellent configuration'. This makes more sense when we take into the consideration that this inscription was found on an artifact that has to do with Orion constellation - a constellation that is visible from any point of the earth.

Another La Mana inscription has been decoded as: "ash-ta-ma asta viupama as". This was termed Pre-Sanskrit and translated as " "Venus mine, is from highest/creator Star". But the words probably have a more refined meaning if we look at it through the Sanskrit lens. Here are the meanings of the words".

Ashtamam - (अष्टमान) measure
Ashtamah - (अष्टमः) eight
Aashtamah - (आष्टम) eighth part
Upamaa (उपमाम्) highest degree or compared with
Asta (अस्त) sunset or decline

Considering that these artifacts have to do with the skies and the constellations, this artifact could have many meanings in Sanskrit and it is important to know the context before the many possible meaningful translations are suggested.

But the language on the artifacts of La Mana, Ecuador, as decoded by scholars is definitely Sanskrit, not Pre-Sanskrit. 

Suggested Links: 

Monday, 1 October 2012


Referring to the mists in the Naver Region, in Sutherland, Northern Scotland, W J Watson in his classic ‘The Celtic Place-Names of Scotland’, explained the etymology of the name 'Naver' . Naver was known as 'Nabar' in Roman times. It was known as Nabhair in Gaelic, and was named for the fogs rising from the river.

Professor W.J. Watson saw the origins of the name 'Naver' from Sanskrit 'Nilab' (नीलभ) meaning 'cloud' and also from 'Nabhas' (नभस्) and 'Nihar' (नीहार) both meaning 'mist'.

W.J. Watson (1865-1948) was one of the greatest Scottish scholars. He was also a toponymist. Toponymy is the study of place names, their origins and meaning.