Tuesday, 31 July 2012


One of the rivers of Babylon is the 'Karun'. 'Karun' (करुन) is Sanskrit for 'compassionate' or 'plaintive'. Some believe that Karun might  have been the Biblical 'Pishon'. It is possible that Pishon is a distortion of 'poshin' (पोषिन्), Sanskrit for 'nurturing' or 'ishan' (इषन्) meaning 'pouring out'.

Another ancient name of the Karun is 'Pasi-tigris'. 'Pas' (पष्) in Sanskrit means to 'touch', and 'pash' (पाश) means to be 'bound to'. This could refer to the fact that the Pasi-Tigris or Karun flows close to the Tigris. 

Poshin, Pasi-Tigris and Karun are the names of the same river. At one point in history it was also known as 'Kuhrang'. Whether this has anything to do with the Sanskrit 'kurangi' (कुरङ्गी) which means 'deer or antelope like' is not known. The present day name 'Karun' is derived from 'Kuhrang'.

Just before the Karun merges with the Euphrates, it splits into two rivers to form a delta called Arvand. From the delta one vein called the Bhamshir flows directly into the sea. The name Bhamhasir may be derived from the Sanskrit 'Bhama' (भामा) which means 'passion' or 'lustre'. 'Sir' (सिरा) means 'nerve' or 'vein'.

The other vein, the Haffar, probably Saffar, from Sanskrit 'sabar' (सबर्) meaning 'nectre' or 'milk', merges directly with the Euphrates.

The other major river of Babylon is the Tigris. The Tigris has always been described as the 'swift river' as compared to the 'slow moving' Euphrates. Its name may well have been derived from the Sanskrit 'Tivra-Agra' (तीव्र- अग्र). In Sanskrit 'tivra' (तीव्र) means 'swift, fast or intense'. The second syllable is 'agr' (अग्र) and means' first, foremost, or ahead'. The more common interpretation of the name Tigris is 'tiger' which itself is derived from the Sanskrit 'vyagr' (व्याग्र).

In fact the Persian name for Tigris was Arvand-Rud. 'Arvan' (अर्वन्) in Sanskrit also means 'fast' or 'swift'. Today, Arvand is the name of the Delta that the Tigris flows into.

The Rivers of Babylon
Map Courtesy: BibleStudy.org

The Euphrates and Karun flow into the Arvand Delta. In the Vedic context, Arvan (अर्वन्) is another name for Lord Indra. Arva or Arvan also means 'Horse' or 'One who runs like Lord Indra'. In fact, the word 'Arab' is derived from Arva.

Notice the Sanskrit  names
'Sumer' (सुमेर), 'Umma' (उमा) meaning 'dawn' , 

'Ur' (उर) meaning 'nerve' or 'canal' 
and 'Uru' (उरु) meaning 'excellent'. 


Fausset's Bible dictionary states that in the word Euphrates, the first syllable Eu, is derived from the Sanskrit Su (सु), which denotes 'good'; the second syllable denotes 'abundant'. The Sanskrit word for abundant is 'Purna' (पूर्ण). Hence Euphrates is derived from the Sanskrit 'Su-Purna' (सुपूर्ण) meaning 'Good-Abundance'.Supurna in Sanskrit also means 'well-filled'.

The Babylonians and Assyrians called Euphrates 'Su-Purattu' which can be traced to 'Su-Purna' (सुपूर्ण). 

Edward Pococke, who had a different view, states in his book 'India in Greece' that the name Euphrates is a distortion of 'Su-Bharata' which changed into 'Su-Purattu', hence the Babylonian and Assyrian name. The word 'su' (सु) as mentioned above means 'good' in Sanskrit, 'Bharat' (भरत्) is the name of ancient Indian king after which India was named 'Bharata' (भारत). Bharata is known to have extended his empire into Central Asia right up to the Mediterranean.

Monday, 30 July 2012


Research has been going on whether the standing stones of Carnac in France were burial plots or whether their use was astronomical in nature. No matter what the future (unbiased) science will reveal, one thing is established, the stones of Carnac are aligned to the sun and moon in a special way.

Sun Temples around the world have similar names - for example: the 'Konark' temple of India and the 'Karnak' Temple of Egypt. In Sanskrit 'Konark' is a combination word, 'kona' (कोण) meaning 'angle' and 'ark' (अर्क) meaning the 'sun'. 

The 'Konark' Sun Temple, Odisha, India.
'Kona' ( कोण ) is 'angle' and 'ark' (अर्क) means 'sun'
in Sanskrit. The Konark is a representation of the Chariot of Surya Deva driven by seven horses.

The Carnac complex in France is located at the unique latitude at which the solstice sun, both summer and winter, form a perfect Pythagorean triangle relative to the parallel of latitude.

The 'Carnac' Megalithic site.

The etymology of the name 'Carnac' is unknown, but if we were to apply Sanskrit to decode the meaning,  of the word 'Carnac' - this is what we arrive at:

1. 'Kar-Ark' : 'kar' (कर) means 'sunbeam'. 'Ark' (अर्क) means 'sun'. Karark (कर-अर्क) means 'sunbeam from the sun' or 'ray of light from the sun'.

2. 'Kar-nak' : kar (कर) means 'sunbeam', 'nak' (नक्) means 'night. Karnak means 'Ray of Light at Night'. This could have been in reference to the Moon.

3. 'Kaar-ark': 'Kaar' (कार) means 'act of worship' or hymn of praise'. 'Ark' (अर्क) is 'sun'. 'Kaar-ark' could thereforebhave been a place of worship for the sun, that is, a Sun Temple.

4. Kar-naksh: Kar (कर) means 'Sunbeam'. Naksh (नक्ष्) means 'approach or come near'. In that sense Carnac would mean 'From where the sunbeam approaches'.

The Egyptians are not sure of the meaning of 'Karnak' in their language, however it is accepted that Karnak of Egypt is also a sun temple.
The 'Karnac' Sun Temple of Egypt

It is obvious that all three sites are temples, more specifically 'astronomy-related' sites dedicated to the worship or study of the Suin - and Sanskrit explains their etymology of the names Carnac (France) and Karnak (Egypt) vias the Sanskrit 'Konark'. 

Saturday, 28 July 2012


Large structures involving carved megalithic stones are a typical feature of Nevali Cori and Gobekli Tepe. Both these ancient sites are located in Turkey. Roughly 10,000 years old, Nevali Cori is the megalithic site from where the artefact of the 'Vedic Priest with a 'Shikha' (a tuft of hair growing from the crown) was excavated in 1993. 

Vedic Priest with 'shikha' - a tuft of
hair growing from the crown
of the head. Sculpture excavated
at Nevali Cori- a site dated to
older than 8000 BC
One of the striking features of Nevali Cori is that by design, it houses not circular, but rectangular structures. Unlike Goebekli Tepe where the T-shaped structures are arranged in circles, Nevali Cori is by foundation, rectangular in its pattern and design.

Taking that as the lead or a clue to its name, lets look at a cognate of Nevali Cori in Sanskrit. Nevali Cori may be a distortion of 'Na-Valay-Akriti' or "Na-Valay-Akrit'.

'Na' () as in 'Not'. 'Valay' (वलय) is Sanskrit for 'Bracelet-like or Circular'. 'Akriti' (आकृति) is 'shape' or 'design'. Nevali-Cori may be 'Na-Valayakrit' (न-वलयीकृत) which means 'Not shaped like a bracelet or not-circular '.

Nevali Cori is said to be closest in design to Kalasasaya Temple [Sanskrit: Kala (Time) + Sasaya (Good Wish or to be desired)]. Kalasasaya Temple is also rectangular in shape.

Nevali Cori may also be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'naval' (नवल) meaning 'new' and 'akriti' (आकृति) meaning 'shape' or 'design' and could be a reference to an architectural design which was new and different from what was prevalent at the time.

Friday, 27 July 2012


The Slabs at Gobekli Tepe represent
Star Constellations
The excavations have only begun on the 25 acre megalithic site of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey. In a predictable routine matter mainstream archaeologists have presented the view that Gobekli Tepe was either a religious centre or a burial site.

However, the precisely arranged rocky megalithic T-shaped slabs placed in several circular enclosures here tell an entirely and an amazingly different story.

Alternate archaeologists have stated that the site at Gobekli Tepe is most definitely related to the position of star constellations in the skies at the time when the site was being constructed. The animal carvings on the T-shaped megalithic slabs at Gobekli Tepe, just as at Nazca, represent the cosmos and constellations. Constellations even today as in the past are named after animals and birds - such as Scorpius (Scorpio) or the Cygnus (Swan).

In this context it is surprising that the name Gobekli Tepe is almost always translated as 'Potbellied Hill' from the Turkish language. The word 'gobek' is 'belly' in Turkish. Tepe means mound but Gobekli was not a hilly mound when it was constructed. The structure it is said was intentionally covered with mud later which gave it the shape of a mound. The actual name of the site which is dated to 10000 BC is of course lost but if by some quirk of fate the remnants of its original name are retained in the word 'gobekli' then one might look at some other cognates of the word 'gobekli' in Turkish whose meanings do greater justice to the name of this site.

For example, the Turkish words 'gok', 'gokada' and 'gezegen' mean 'sky', 'galaxy' and 'observe' respectively. 'Goc' is ‘migration’ or ‘roaming’. It seems here therefore that the sound 'go' in Turkish has to do with the 'sky', the 'universe' and 'movement'. Just as it is so in Sanskrit.
'Go' in Sanskrit means 'Sun', 'Moon' or ' Stars'
'Tepe' means Study or Meditation.
Gobekli Tepe might have been an Observatory.

'Go' (गो), for example, has many meanings in Sanskrit including 'sun', 'stars', 'ray of the sun', 'moon', 'earth' and 'thunderbolt'. 'Go' (गो) of course also means 'cow', 'cattle', 'ox' or 'cowherd' and the ‘sun sign Taurus'. ‘Go’ is also related to Goddess Saraswati who is linked to the Cygnus constellation. And 'go' (गो) also means 'migration' or 'transit' or 'to roam'.
The word 'tepe' in Goebkli Tepe is almost certainly a distortion of 'tapa' (तप), which has the 
meaning 'sun', 'temperature' or 'heat' in Sanskrit. In the Vedic context 'tapa' signifies 'religious austerity, asceticism and penance'. It also means 'meditate' or 'study with devotion'. The word 'tepe' also has the meaning 'mound' in Sanskrit which appears in its more familiar form as 'stuup' (स्तूप्). With time the word 'stuup' got associated with the stupas - the blunt, mound shaped Buddhist shrines. In Turkish the word for 'temple' is 'tapinak' - certainly derived from the Sanskrit 'tapa'. 

As per its Sanskrit and Turkish meanings, 'Gobekli Tepe' seems most certainly to be an astronomical observatory. Says researcher Gene Matlock, "The ancient Indians and the Nahuatl speaking tribes in the Americas shared the same word for 'Hill or Mountain' - the Sanskrit "Tapa (तप्) and the Nahuatl, Tepetl or Tepec". In the Vedic context since all study and meditations were done on mountains, the word 'Tapa' is linked to mediation and mountains both. 

Says Alex Putney in his write-up 'Resonance at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey', " The highly geometric forms of the megaliths and idealized animal pictograms adorning them correspond closely to geometric language forms of the worldwide Paleo-Sanskrit culture, associated in every region of our planet with monumental piezoelectric temples dedicated to the planet Jupiter. Identified as the Divine One, the giant planet Jupiter was signified all over the world during the Paleolithic Era by the square Indra glyph, reflected in the square or rectangular format of the top portions of the megaliths at Göbekli Tepe."

Dr. B. G. Sidharth, (Director General of the B.M. Birla Science Centre, Hyderabad and also the convener and co-chairman along with two Nobel Laureates professors D.D. Osheroff and C. Cohen Tanoudji of  Frontier of Fundamental Physics International Symposium) states in one of his research papers, that at Gobekli Tepe and Nevali Cori (another archaeological site in Turkey) there is archaeological evidence of what is stated in the Vedas. He says, "....there are several pillars and structures with all the astronomical motifs that could be found in the Rig Veda and indicative of a high degree of artistry. Most importantly, the latitude of this place is the same 37 degrees North alluded to earlier. Undoubtedly both these structures represented perhaps the oldest astronomical observation Centre in history".
 The design of the pillars and other structures is a reflection of the cosmos at the time the structures were built. It has been suggested that the builders of Gobekli Tepe were aware of precession. The structures correspond to the Orion-Taurus-Pleiades constellations which were visible before dawn on vernal equinoxes from the direction of the T-shape pillars at the centre of each enclosure. Gobekli Tepe and two other ancient sites Karahan Tepe and Nevali Cori are all located at around 37 degrees north.

At Gobekli Tepe, Dr Sidarth adds, ".. in enclosure D there are 12 obelisks or pillars, one for each month. These pillars show the figure of a fox or wolf (Vrika)". The Vrika is a symbol of the moon. The Sanskrit Vrika (वृक्) has the meanings both of 'fox' or 'wolf' and 'moon'.

To elaborate this point Dr Sidharth quotes the Rig Vedic Hymn 1.105.18. which goes as follows:

अरुणो मा सक्र्द वर्कः पथा यन्तं ददर्श हि |

उज्जिहीते निचाय्या तष्टेव पर्ष्ट्यामयी वित्तं मे अस्य रोदसी || 

aruNo mA sakradvRkah patha yantaM dadarsha hi
uj jihIte nicAyya taSTeva prSTyAmayI vittam me asya rodasi

This verse is commonly translated as : 'A ruddy wolf beheld me once, as I was faring on my path. He, like a carpenter whose back is aching crouched and slunk away. Mark this, my woe, ye Earth and Heaven'.

The word 'vRkah' is translated as 'wolf'. But, if one were to refer to a Sanskrit dictionary, we find that the word 'vRkah' has the meaning of wolf and moon both. Sidharth clarifies further. He quotes the scholar Yaska of Nirkuta fame. Yaska had defined the property of the word 'vRkah' saying that it indicates an object whose 'light increases and decreases'. That is a property of the object moon.

Sidharth splits the next two words as 'masa krita' or 'creator of months' and the meaning of the verse changes to, "Moon, the creator of the months, passes through the houses (asterisms)".

He also says that the motifs on the pillars can be understood on the basis of the symbols of Rig Vedic Astronomy. In the Rig Vedic Culture animals were assigned as symbols to star constellations.

Then there are some easily recognizable symbols found in the artefacts at Gobekli Tepe. One is the artifact of the coiled serpent. 

The twined snake artefact. Goebekli Tepe, Turkey.
This is a cmmoon symbol in India.

A stele depicting Lord Siva and
two coiled serpents, South India

At Nevali Cori, in Turkey  a sculpture of a human head, clean shaven with a Vedic shikha much like Hindu priests of antiquity and present day has lead to speculation that these sites were centres of Vedic learning.

Sculpture of clean shaven human head with
Vedic shikha or ponytail
excavated at Nevali Cori, Turkey,

It is therefore far more likely that 'Gobekli Tepe' was an observatory and a centre for 'tapah' representing  an advanced culture of which so
me traces survive in that area or the close by civilizations. For this site to have been a structure made by an unheard of group of people, where the shepherds grazed their cattle and buried their dead. In fact ,it is in the modern era that Gobekli Tepe was being used for grazing cattle until excavations began on the site.

Suggested Links:

1. For a detailed discussion on the Etymology of the word 'Tepe', Click Here.
2. Was Gobekli Tepe an Observatory? Here's why! Gobekli Tepe Constellations
3. Why Study Sanskrit? Click Here
4. Gobekli Tepe and Nevali Cori - Astronomy
5.  Ancient Places in Asia: Nevali Cori

6. About Dr. B. G. Sidharth

Thursday, 26 July 2012


On the Western Isles of Scotland lies the Callanish (pronounced Kalanish) megalithic site. The 13 standing stones are arranged in a circle, with long rows of different lengths that extend in the north, south, east and west directions.

The stones are astronomically aligned and mark the beginning of spring and fall, and also the movement of the moon.

Callanish Observatory.
In Sanskrit 'Kala' means time and
'Nisham' means 'observation'.

In Sanskrit, Callanish or 'Kalanish' means 'Time-Observation'. 'Kala' (काल) means 'time, era, epoch, tense- (as in past, present or future). 'Nisham' (निशम्) means to 'observe, perceive or listen'.

Is Callanish a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Kalanisham' (कालनिशम्) ? That Sanskrit name of the site certainly describes the function of the site as an 'astronomical observatory'.

Callanish Stone Site goes by two other ancient names, 'An Turasachan' and 'Clachan Chanalis'. Here is what the Sanskrit link to these names is:

1. 'An Turasachan': 'An Turasachan' might be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Antara'- (अन्तर) which means 'time interval', and, 'Shan' (शाण) which means 'stone'. 'An Turasachan' then translates to 'Antara-Shan' or even 'Antara-Pashan', which either way means 'Inteval-Period-Stone'. Which is an apt description of an observatory which tracks the movement of the planets with strategically placed stones'.

2. 'Clachan Chanalis': 'Clachan' is a cognate of 'Kala' (काल) and 'Shan' (शाण) put together. 'Kalashan' is Sanskrit for 'Time-Stone', which is an appropriate name for an observatory. Chanalis is a probably a distorton of Callanish, which has been decoded above as 'Kala-Nisham' (that is Time-Observatory).

The word 'kala' also occurs in names of other ancient stone-observatories of the world - for example - 'Kalasasaya' in Bolivia. The word 'Chan' also occurs in names of ancient observatories of the world such as 'Chankillo' in Peru.

Wednesday, 25 July 2012


The area around Lake Titicaca is the hub of some of the most magnificent megalithic ruins of Bolivia. Lake Titicaca is the highest navigable lake in the world and lies at a height of 12507 ft above sea level.

Its shores are lined with ancient fossils which indicate that Titicaca was once linked with the sea which has since receded. Lake Titicaca is a salt-water lake and the area adjoining it is lined with fossilized sea-shells.

Now a look at its name and what it reveals. A close cognate of Titicaca in Sanskrit is 'Titicsha' (तितिक्ष) which means 'high above'. Could then ‘Titicaca’ be a distorted form of its ancient name 'Titicsha'?

The water body Titicaca once extended to where the megalithic ancient ruins of Tivanaku are located in the Bolivian Andes mountain range at a height of 13000 feet above sea level.

It is said that Tiwanaku's modern name is related to the Ayamara term 'taypiqala', meaning 'stone in the center', alluding to the belief that it lay at the center of the world.

Here is a look at what ‘Tivanaku’ means in Sanskrit. In Sanskrit, Tivar (तीवर) means 'Ocean', and, 'Naku' (नाकु) means 'mountain'. One translation of the word ‘Tivanaku from Sanskrit would be ‘ocean mountain', or the 'mountain that arises out of the ocean'. Scholar Gene Matlock has interpreted ‘Tivanaku’ as 'divya-naku'. 'divya' (दिव्य) is Sanskrit for 'heavenly' or 'divine' - ‘Divyanaku’ translates as 'heavenly mountain'.

Tivanaku may also be a distortion of 'Divya-Naka' (not 'naku') then the Sanskrit to English translation is 'heavenly heaven' - for 'naka' (नाक) means heaven - which also aptly describes Tivanaku.

Mt. Ilimani on Lake Titicaca.
Mt. Ilimani is also known as Mt. Illemana in the ancient
Aymara language. It means 'that which rises from the sun'.
According to ancient Vedic texts Ila-vrata was the highest
and most central part of the nine divisions of the world.
Is it possible that Ili-mani was named after Ila-vrata.
Ila-mani means the 'Jewel of Ila' in Sanskrit.

Today archaeologists date Tivanaku to 200 A.D. but this was not always so. Polish engineer and investigator Prof. Arthur Posnansky dated Tivanaku to 15,000 B.C. Posnansky had dedicated 50 years of his life to the study of Titicaca and Tivanaku and made this observation in his research paper published in 1945 . He also identified that the Tivanaku megaliths were the structures of an ancient sea port. However, the mainline archaeologist disagree and say that the Tivanaku megaliths are the remains of a temple complex.

Pre-historic water levels have been identified by the lines made by calcareous deposits on rock cliffs near this sea port or temple complex (called Puma Punku). But strangely these lines are tilted, not level as they once must have been. Posnansky had inferred that a violent geologic activity or some similar force must have uplifted the land sometime in the ancient past thus lifting the megaliths of the sea-port at Tiwanaku to 13000 ft. above the sea level and cutting off Lake Titicaca from the sea to lodge it at a height of 12,500 ft above sea level. 


The megalithic structures of the ancient world are explained away as, tombs of dead kings or ritual centers for human sacrifice, by the main stream historians. The megalithic sites are dated by them to be only about 1500, or at the earliest - 2000 years old! The new day historians, archaeologists, astronomers and engineers however question these absurd explanations.

Not surprisingly, main stream historians say that the ruins of Samaipata in Bolivia, are an ancient ritual center. Not so, say the new lot of researchers. Swiss theorist Erich von Däniken had concluded long back that the two parallel grooves carved in the rock, atop Samaipata, was used for Vimana or UFO operation in ancient times. 

The Parallel Channels at Samaipata, Bolivia
Photo Courtesy: http://www.ancient-wisdom.co.uk/boliviasamaipata.htm

Now lets look at what Samaipata means in Sanskrit. Both 'Sama' and 'Pata' have many meanings. 'Sama' (सम) means 'together', 'parallel' or 'equal' in Sanskrit. This explains the two equal, parallel grooves atop Samaipata. In Sanskrit 'Pata' (पत) means both 'to descend' and 'to fly'! Sama-Pata (सम-पत:) What better description of a descending or flying 'vimanas'.

Incidentally, the word 'Samapatati' (समापतति) is commonly used in Sanskrit and means 'to come together', 'fly together towards', or 'to descend'. When the Spanish first invaded this region in the 16th century, they were told by the Incas who were residing there at that time that Samaipata was the place the Gods ascended into heaven.

This ancient rock carving at Samaipata depicts a
'Vimana' or 'UFO'. The carving is from no later
than 300 AD if not earlier.

Photo Courtesy:http://pelasgos.e-e-e.gr/files/oct-2012.html

Suggested Links

Tuesday, 24 July 2012


Tiahuanaco, like many 'sacred ruins’ of the world is located on a major grid point. Prominent among the ruins of Tiahuanacu in the Andes in Bolivia is the Pyramid of Akapana, along with the Sungate, the Sunken temple and Kalasasaya temple (which was discussed in an older post).

The Akapana Pyramid is aligned to the cardinal directions, and, it faces the East. Lets now look at 'Akapana' - the name of the Pyramid amongst the Tiahuanaco ruins. Close to the Akapana Pyramid is the Kalasasaya Temple which houses the idol of God Viracocha. In local mythology God Viracocha is described as the one who wields a 'Lightening Rod' in his hand.

Viracocha as the wielder of
the 'Arka'. Arka is Sanskrit for 'thunderbolt'
If one were to link the name 'Akapana' with the Mayan or Incan Gods then we may first look at a slightly distorted form of Akapana. In Sanskrit, 'arka' (अर्क) means 'sun' and Arka (आर्क) means 'sun beam', or that 'which pertains to the sun'. In Sanskrit, 'pana' (पाण) means 'hand'. Arkapana means "The One who holds the Thunderbolt". That is the exact description of Viracocha.

So it may be argued that Akapana Pyramid, or Arkapana Pyramid - is the Pyramid of God Viracocha.

However, a more scientific explanation may be suggested if we were to credit the ancient races with the view that alternative theory archaeologists uphold - that they were far more intelligent and knowledgeable than we are ready to accept. 

Constructed atop the Akapana pyramid was a huge water tank from which water slowly seeped into a complex system of stone channels from where it flowed into a ditch surrounding the entire structure. This is intriguing. The system still works and what has been found is that the water flowing in the channels is warm even though the base of Akapana is at a height of more than 12000 feet above sea level. Scientists say that the warm water channeled from Akapana made farming possible at this height. What keeps the water warm is a mystery that has not yet been solved. For more on this click here.

The Pyramid of 'Akapana' at Tiwanaku.
'Arka' also means the 'sun' in Sanskrit, and
'pana' means 'canal'. 
Picture courtesy: Tiwy.com

'Pana' when spelled as (पाण) means 'hand' but when spelled as (पान) it has other meanings in Sanskrit as well. 'Pana' (पान) means 'a drink' or 'a drinking vessel', it also means a 'canal'.

The likeliest name of this pyramid from the Sanskrit point of view is 'Arkapana'. 'Arka' relates to sun and warmth, 'pana' to a 'drinking vessel' or 'canal'. It is therefore not out of line to argue that the name 'Akapana' may be linked to the complex water system structures in the region which keep the water much warmer than the air temperature. The name 'Arkapana' also pays homage to the Sun God and to the wielder of the thunderbolt - Incan God 'Viracocha'.

It is also possible that the structures at this site were used for different purposes, as a religious site or a water facility, at different points in history. And it is conceivable that variations of the meanings of the name 'Akapana' were in use at different times corresponding to its function in a particular era.

Sunday, 22 July 2012


The Paracas Trident of Peru, is a geo-glyph in the Andes Mountains and is regarded in the native folklore as the 'Lightening Rod' of God Viracocha, a pre-Incan Civilization God of Peru/Bolivia.

But lets take a look at the name 'Paracas'. A direct translation of its Sanskrit cognate 'Prakash' (प्रकाश्) is 'light', 'lustre', or 'brightness'. Thousands of years back the Trident etched on the mountain shone due to the peculiarity of the mineral composition of the mountain. In ancient times, the shining trident would have been visible from high up in the skies, therefore it sometimes is regarded as a guiding beacon for ancient UFOs or 'vimanas'.

Another, and even closer, cognate of 'Paracas' is the Sanskrit 'parakash' (पराकाश) which means 'distant view', also appropriate for the 'Paracas Trident' is visible from the high skies even to this day, when the lustre of the shining mineral has eroded considerably.

Paracas Trident, Peru
Associated with God Viracocha
In the Vedic and Hindu tradition, the Trident has a prominent place. Lord Shiva wields the Trident (Trishul). Goddess Durga also holds the Trishul, as one of her many weapons. The Trident in Hinduism represents Creation, Maintenance and Destruction. It also represents Time - Past, Present and Future. In the ancient annals of Peru, the Trident of Paracas is associated with God Viracocha.

Suggested Links:

Saturday, 21 July 2012


In the Valmiki Ramayan of India, Virochana (Sanskrit: विरोचन), was the first great Asura king with supernatural powers. (Asuras were power seeking deities). The Upanashids say that Virochana and Lord Indra together were taught at the feet of Prajapati. However, contrary to what he was taught, Virochana preached the Asuras to worship the 'sharira' (body) instead of the 'atman' (absolute consciousness).

In the ancient texts of South America, Vedic 'Viro-Chana' (विरोचन) emerges as 'Vira-Cocha' (वीरकोच). Scholars regard God Vira-Cocha ( वीरकोच) the equivalent of Lord Indra. The myths and stories about the two are close.Viracocha is the 'King of Gods' just as Lord Indra. Viracocha also wields the 'Thunderbolt', like Indra.

What would the name Viracocha of South America tradition mean in Sanskrit? The word 'Vira' (वीर) means 'brave, heroic, powerful, strong'. 'Kocha' (कोच) means a 'man of Mixed Ancestry.

Scholars say today, the megaliths of South America, such as the Temple of 'Kalasasaya' (which houses an idol of Viracocha) in Bolivia, could not have been made without alien help. 

Investigations in Assyrian mythology prove the existence of a tradition in Assyrian history of such a king called Berosus - a distortion of Virochana and Viracocha - as it has often been reiterated 'b' and 'v' are commutable. According to Swami Vivekananda "the western nations are the children of the great hero Virochana." (Source: Talks with Vivekananda: Publisher- Advaita Ashram, Mayavati, Himalayas, January 1939.)

Can we then say the same about Lord Indra. After all, as per the Puranas, Lord Indra did travel to Earth from his 'Alien' abode, namely 'Indra Lok'.

Friday, 20 July 2012


Tiahuanacu (also called Tivanaku) lies in the Andes Mountain range in Bolivia at 12,500 feet above sea-level. It is known for its ancient megalithic ruins and has been dated to 15,000 BC (though main-stream historians date it to 200 AD).

Prominent among the ruins of Tiahuanacu, is the Temple of Kalasasaya. Lets look at the Sanskrit connection.

Kala (काल), pronounced Kaal, in Sanskrit means 'Time' or 'Era'. Sasya (शस्य) in Sanskrit has many meanings depending on the context. One of the meanings of 'Sasya' is "Wishing" or to be Desired". If so, then "Kalasasaya" may well mean "Good-Time Wish Temple" .

Sasya also means 'Excellent'. That would make Kaala Sasya mean 'Excellent Time'. Could it then have been a place of worship to Kaali herself, the Goddess of Kaal or Time.

A third meaning of Sasya in Sanskrit is Grain or Corn. Maybe it was a place where prayers were held for a good harvest, general prosperity and a great tomorrow.

Another cognate of Sasaya in Sanskrit is 'Shashay' (शशय) which means 'abundant', 'ever-flowing' or unfailing.

Kalasasaya also houses the idol of Viracocha who has been identified by many as the Vedic god Indra. But more about that in a later blog.

Kalasasaya Temple
Some scholars like Gene Matlock say that the name Kalasasaya is a derived from the name 'Kailasha' (कैलास). Mount Kailash located in the Himalayas in India is regarded as the abode of Lord Shiva since the Vedic times to the present times.

Tuesday, 17 July 2012


The ancient town of Ollantaytambo in Peru, is located on the intersection of the rivers Urubamba, sanskrit (उर्वी अम्बा) or 'Urviamba' meaning 'Earth Mother', and river 'Patakancha' (पात कंचन) or 'Falling Gold' or 'Flowing Gold' river. This ancient town in Peru, famous for its temples and agricultural terraces. The Sanskrit connect to the name Ollantaytambo os discussed here.

The town of Ollantaytambo lies on the left bank of the River Patakancha. A smaller compound called 'Araqhama' lies on the right bank of the Patakancha.

Araqhama Complex is famous for its Sun Temple and a large Temple Plaza by the name of Manya-Araki. Interestingly Arqa or Arka (आर्क) is the Sanskrit word for 'Sun'.

In Sanskrit 'manya' (मान्य) means 'respected' or 'honorable' - 'manya-araki' would then mean 'respected Sun (God)'.

The 'Manyaraki' Plaza - 'manya' is Sanskrit for
'respected' and 'araka' is 'sun'

Like many other ancient Temples in South America, the names Araqama and Manyaraki are highly likely to be distortions of their ancient Sanskrit pronunciation.

Miles Poindexter (April 22, 1868 – September 21, 1946), who was an an American politician who served as a United States Representative, a United States Senator and also as the Ambassador of the United States to Peru made the following observation, "There is nothing strange in the fact that much of the religious mythology of the Mexicans and Peruvians was undoubtedly of Asiatic origin when it is considered that all of our religions come from Asia....Both the Inca and Mayan civilizations, even their languages, had much in common with our own, inherited from the same common far eastern Cradle-land of the race....America in race and culture was but an extension of Asia, and it is said that in pre-glacial times it was geographically so...The name Asia itself appears on the Peruvian coast, south of Lim."


Puma Punku also called 'Puma Pumku' or 'Puma Punchu', is part of a large temple complex at Tiwanaku in Bolivia. In the Native American Aymara language , 'Puma Punku' means, 'The Door of the Puma (Lion)'.

Here is a look at the name 'Puma Punku' through the Sanskrit lens. If we were to look at the names of other ancient observatories that measure solstices in Peru and Boliva such as Sacsay-huaman' and 'Inti-huatana' we find that the words 'huaman' and 'huatana' are probably distortions of the same word.What might that word be.

In Sanskrit 'ayana' (अयन) is the word for 'solstice'. 'Ayana' also means 'half year' or 'precession (of the equinox)'. 'Hayana' (हायन) means 'that which repeats every year' in the context of astronomy. It is quite possible that the Sanskrit 'hayana' that distorts to 'huaman' in 'Sacsay-huaman' and to 'huatana' in 'Inti-huatana', shows up as 'puman' instead of 'huaman' or hayana' in the name 'Puman Punchu'. For more on the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Sacsay-huaman' click here and for the Sanskrit connection to the name 'Inti-huatana' click here.

What about the Punku or Panchu. A close cognate of Panchu is  'Pancha' (पञ्च). 'Pancha' has many meanings in Sanskrit - the most common is 'five', but 'pancha' also means 'measure'. In fact the Vedic calender is known as 'panchanga'. The 'panchanga' measures the movement of the sun and moon. The literal translation of Pancha is 'five' and 'anga 'is part. In a calender, 'pancha' refers to the five measures - the lunar day (tithi), day of the week, lunar mansion (nakshatra), luni-solar day (yoga) and half -lunar day (karana). 

Puma Punku
Solistice Observation Point

Courtesy: http://subharanjangupta.wordpress.com
If Puma Punku is an observatory which measures the 'solstices', then its name may well be a distortion of words related to the Sanskrit 'hayana' and 'panchanga'. In fact the temple of Kalasasaya in Puma Punku is also a stone-calender that is aligned with the solstices. It is not surprising that here too there is a Sanskrit connection - 'Kala' काल)means 'time'.For more on this click here.

So where might the link to the Ayamara 'Door of the Lion' translation of 'Puma Punku' have evolved from. In Sanskrit Lord Shiva is known as 'Pancha-anana' (पञ्चानन) or 'Five-Faced'- where four of the five faces represent, the four directions, and, one face points towards the sky. However what is interesting is that 'Pancha-anana' also means 'Lion' in Sanskrit, which connects it to the Ayanmara meaning of 'Puma Punku'.
The 'lion' is known by many other names in Sanskrit were the word 'pancha' repeatedly occurs - namely Pancha-Mukha (पञ्चमुख), Pancha-nakha (पञ्चनख), Panchasya (पञ्चास्य), Panchavaktra (पञ्चवक्त्र), and Panchashikha (पञ्चशिख). Other cognates such as Palamkasha (पलंकष) also meaning 'lion'.

The Face on the Gateway of the Sun
at Puma Punku
The face has been interpreted both as the Sun and Lion

Suggested Links:
Ayamara Language
Puma Punku

Monday, 16 July 2012


Chankillo is a 2,300-year-old stone Solar observatory located north of Lima, Peru. It is the oldest known observatory in the Americas. Its 13 stone-pillars track the sun's progress across the sky. Researchers agree that the last pillar on either end of the stone-pillar-line point to the Summer Solstice and Winter Solstice.

The word 'Chankillo' may be a distortion of two Sanskrit words. In Sanskrit 'Shan' 
(शाण) means 'stone' and 'kala' (काल) means 'time', 'measure of time' or 'era'. 'Shan-kala' means 'stone that measure time', in other words an observatory.

June (Winter) Solistice at the stone-observatory
at Chankillo, Peru. In Sanskrit  'Chan'
means 'stone' and
'Kala'(काल) means 'time'.
Photo courtesy: about.com
In the local ancient Quechua language of Peru, the Festival of the Sun celebrated on  winter solstice day is known as 'Inti-Raymi'. In Sanskrit winter solstice is known as 'yami-ayana' (याम्यायन) and summer Solstice is known as 'uttar-ayana (उत्तरायण).*

Inti-raymi may well be the distortion of the Sanskrit 'uttar-ayana' or 'yamy-ayana'. Or a mix of both. Especially because there is yet another observatory in Peru, located behind the Macchu Picchu site by the name Huayana Picchu. 'Ayana' (
अयन) in Sanskrit means 'points of the solstices and equinoxes', and it also means 'precession', 'half year', and 'circulation or rotation'. Then again, in Sanskrit 'hayana' (हायन) means 'returning every year or 'lasting a year'! That says it all.'Piccha' may be distorted 'pacchas' (पच्छस्)  of course means 'step by step' referring to the steps or the climb leading to the site of 'Huayana Piccha'. In some Sanskrit derived languages of India such as Kashmiri the word 'paccha' means 'top' or 'roof'.

'Huayana Picchu' Observatory of Peru.
In Sanskrit 'ayana' means 'Solstice',
'Hayana' means 'that which repeats every year' and
'Pacchas' means 'step by step' referring to a climb.

*Sir William Jones, in his Asiatic Researches, however linked the words 'Inti-Raymi' and the 'Rama-Sitva' festival directly to the Hindu God Rama. His quote on the subject is well known. 

Suggested Links:
  1. Yaxachilan - The Sanskrit Connection
  2. Macchu Pichu - The Sanskrit Connection


Ollantay-tambo is an ancient town located on the intersection of River Urubamba and Patakancha in Peru. The rivers itself bear names that are pure Sanskrit. 'Urubamba' is a slight distortion of the Sanskrit 'Urviamba (उर्वी-अम्बा) which means 'Earth Mother'. But 'Patakancha' (पात-कंचन) is pure Sanskrit, no distortions. In Sanskrit 'Patakancha' means 'Falling Gold' or 'Flowing Gold) River.

Here is a look at the name the name Ollantay-Tambo. The valley mountain walls of the Ollantaytambo Town are extensively covered with agricultural terraces. Though the ancient South American (including pre-Incan, pre-Mayan & pre-Aztec) civilizations, practiced terrace farming extending from the villages of Chihuaahua to Chile, no where did the art of agricultural terrace farming reach the excellence that it did at Ollantay-tambo, where, the terraces were built to a standard higher than any other town.

Could it be then that, Ollantay town derives its name from the Sanskrit word for word 'terrace'. In Sanskrit the word 'alinda' (आलिन्द) or 'allindaka' (अलिन्दक) both mean 'terrace' or 'balcony'. Note here that 'Tambo' was added to the name Ollantay later at the time  when the Tambo Incan tribe captured Ollantay.

The Terraces of Ollantay-Tambo
'Alinda' means 'Terrace' in Sanskrit
In Sanskrit, the root word 'aaling' (आलिङ्ग्) means to 'encircle', 'embrace' 'clasp' or 'extend'. Since terraces or balconies are 'attached extensions', in the noun form the verb 'aaling' changes to 'aalinda' in Sanskrit. It also means 'hanging from'.

In the ancient Native American language of Aimara, also called Aymara, 'Ullan-tavi' means 'looking down from'. Could this be a distorted variation of 'looking down from a height or terrace', which closely relates to the Sanskrit 'aalindak'.

Scholars have discussed the links between Sanskrit and languages of Native Americans. In, fact like Sanskrit, Aymara is also highly structured and its grammar is known for its computer like precision.

Sunday, 15 July 2012


Ever wondered what the names of the five villages (for which the battle of Mahabharat was fought) demanded by the Pandvas in lieu of Hastinapur, were named?  Here goes:

1. Swarna-prastha (Sonipat, Haryana)
2. Parna-prastha (Panipat, Haryana)
3. Indra-prastha (Delhi)
4. Vyagra-prastha (Baghpat, Haryana)
5. Tila-prastha (Tilapat,Haryana)

These villages (!) have been continuously inhabited since the times of the Mahabarata.

Saturday, 14 July 2012


The Mayan Civilization located in the Latin American region of Mexico, Peru and Guatemala, that flourished on the rivers Usumacinta and Urubamba, are lined with ruins of ancient towns. One of the the most prominent of course is Yaxachilan (यक्षशिला). The etymology of Yaxchilan, Urubamba and Usumacinta and their link to Sanskrit were discussed in previous posts.

Some of the towns located on the Urubamba, that are most visited today by tourists and researchers, are the towns of Calca, Pisaca, Lamay and Ollantaytambo.

Calca is a cognate of the Sanskrit name Kalka, which means 'pertaining to Kaal' (काल) i.e. 'pertaining to time'. Kalika (कलिका) means 'division of time'. In the Vedic tradition Kali (कलि) is the Goddess of Time. And as a Goddess of Time she is both Preserver and Destroyer. Goddesss Kali wears a garland of skulls and a girdle of human hands.

Vedic Goddess Kali
wears a girdle of human hands
and a necklace of skulls.
The tongue
 sticks out partially.

In the ancient Aztec/Mayan lore of South America, Goddess Kaali emerges as Godess Coatlicue. She wears a girdle of snakes and a necklace made of human hearts, hands, and skulls.

Goddess Coalticue
Notice the two pairs of hands

The word Coatlicue is Nahuatl ( a Meso-American language that was spoken in Central Mexico) for 'the one with the skirt of serpents'The Nahuatl word for serpents is 'Coatl'. In Sanskrit  one of the many words for 'snakes' is 'kakola' (काकोल) and comes close to the Nahuatl 'Coatl'. The Sanskrit word for 'skirt' or really a 'girdle' is 'kandal' (कन्दल).

The region of Calca in Peru has the ruins of temples dedicated to Coatlicue (and also Viracocha- another important deity)
 just as the town of Kalka in India has ancient Kaali Temples. In fact the town of Kalka is named after Goddess Kaali.

The many armed Goddess Kaali
Kaali Temple, Kalka, India
Suggested Links:

Friday, 13 July 2012


The Usumacinta River in South Mexico is another river of the great Mayan civilization.

The waters of the Usumacinta are always warm. There in lies the Sanskrit connection. In Sanskrit 'Usuna' (उष्ण) means Warm. And in Sanskrit 'Chita' (चित्) means 'behaviour', appearance or temperament'.

A close translation of 'Usumacinta' from Sanskrit would be 'Warm Tempered' - which describes the river appropriately.

The Usumacinta passes along numerous Mayan ruins, including the partially restored city of Yaxchilán, (pronounced Yaksha-shilan).

Amongst the ruins of Yaxchilan are sculptures of stone guards . Yaksha (यक्ष) in Sanskrit is the word for 'heavenly guards or heavenly spirits'.

Chilan which is pronounced Shilan or shila (शिला), means "stone" in Sanskrit. Yaxachilan is then just the distorted form the Sanskrit 'Yakshashila'.

Yaxachilan town is also called Pa' Chan by the locals. Pa' Chan means stones in the local Mayan Quechua language. Amazingly 'pashaan' (पाषाण) also means 'stone' in Sanskrit.

Thursday, 12 July 2012


To the Sanskrit and Hindi speaking world, many of the ancient site names in South America, and those of its rivers and mountains sound very familiar. And so do many other words from the Native American Quenchua language.

One of the most famous structures of the Incan Valley is the ancient Macchu Pichu. Though its name is usually translated as the 'Old Mountain', here is a look at what the na
me means in Sanskrit.

The word 'Mancha' (मंच) in Sanskrit means a 'raised platform', 'stage', or 'something high up'. '
Maachu' may be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Mancha'. And 'Pacchas' (पच्छस्) in Sanskrit means 'step after step'. 'Mancha Pacchas' therefore means 'Platforms & Steps'. That aptly describes Maachu Picchu.

The steps of Machu Picchu and the River Urubamba
'Pacchas' means 'step by step' in Sanskrit &
'Mancha' means 'Platform'
Photo Courtesy Hakan Svensson (Xauxa)

The Urubamba River flows below. The name 'Urubamba' is also derived from Sanskrit where the word 'Urvi' (उर्वी) has many meanings including 'soil, earth, heaven & earth, wide region, river and earth'. 'Amba' (अम्बा) of course means 'Mother' in Sanskrit.

'Mother of the Earth' or 'Mother River' is an appropriate translation of the Sanskrit name 'Uruvamba'. Given the fact that in the Incan tradition the Urubamba River is regarded as a sacred river, Mother River sure is an apt name.

'Macchu Pichu' is located high up on a mountain, hidden behind rows of mountain chains. Giant walls and terraces, and rows of ramps and platforms are structured in the rock escarpments. It is therefore also possible that 'Picchu' is a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Piccha' (पिच्छ) which means 'crest' or that which is located at the top.

There is another possibility. A new theory proposed by the Italian archaeo-astronomer Giulio Magli suggests that the journey to Macchu Pichu from Cusco town was a pilgrimage for the ancients, with Macchu Pichu as the culmination of the pilgrimage. In that sense, another Sanskrit word comes into play.

The word is 'Pascha' (पश्चा) which means 'later', behind', 'after', or 'last'. In any case, the location of Macchu Pichu was such that it was completely invisible from below as it lays atop a mountain range which is hidden by rows of peaks. Could 'Macchu Pichu' be a distortion of the Sanskrit 'Mancha Pascha' - 'The Last Platform'!
But it is the 'Step by Step to the Platform' meaning of Machu Picchu that describes the site most aptly. 

Machu Picchu.
Is the name a distortion of Sanskrit 'Mancha Piccha'?

Right behind Maachu Picchu is another observatory by the name Hu-ayana Piccha. In Sanskrit 'ayana' (अयन) means 'Solstice'. And 'hayana' (हायन) means 'that which repeats every year' or 'year' or 'a ray of light', referring to the two solstices every year. Hu-ayana Piccha is therefore a place from where the yearly 'solstices' were observed.

Well known Indian architect, Dr. V. Ganapati Sthapati*, in his research has demonstrated that the residential layouts around Maachu Pichu are identical to those at Harappan Civilization Indus Valley sites. His research has shown that the layout of the Maachu Picchu structures, locations for doors, windows, proportions of width to length, roof styles, degree of slopes for roofs, column sizes, wall thicknesses, etc. all conform completely to the principles and guidelines as prescribed in the Vaastu Shastra** of India.

*  About Dr. Ganapati Sthapati
** About Vaastu Shastra